본문으로 건너뛰기

"me" 태그로 연결된 33개 게시물개의 게시물이 있습니다.

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End of Year Retro 2023

· 약 6분

엄청난 일들이 많았던 해였다. 이보다 다이나믹할 수 있을까? 시작부터 완전히 망했다. 과도한 업무의 스트레스를 운동으로 풀던 나는 적정 무게를 지키지 않았고, 무리에 무리를 더하며, 결국 1월 첫째 주에 디스크를 터뜨렸다.

극복하는 과정은 더욱 힘들었다. 첫 두 달은 대부분의 시간을 누워서 보냈고, 앉아있지를 못해서 밥도 서서 먹었다. 와이프와 지인들이 도와줘서 몇 가지 해결책과 재활방안을 마련했고, 정선근 교수님의 모든 책과 영상을 보고 허리가 아프면 새벽에라도 공원을 걸었다. 그리고 회고를 하듯이 매일의 통증을 기록해 나갔다.

재활은 고통의 연속이었다. 누워있는 기간 동안 모든 근육은 잠겼고, 신경은 근육에 붙었고, 트라우마는 강해졌다. 통증의 원인이 재활인지, 디스크인지 구분할 수는 없었다.

하드웨어가 무너지니 소프트웨어에도 장애가 발생하기 시작했다. 평생 긍정적 살아온 내가 우울증이 오기 시작했다. 쥐 공원 실험을 알고 난 뒤부터 정신의 문제는 환경의 문제라고 생각하는 난, 주변의 모든 환경을 바꾸기로 결심하고 비즈니스 아키텍처보다 개인 아키텍처를 우선시하기로 했다. 시간과 건강이 돈보다 중요해졌기에 퇴사했다.

30대의 개인 아키텍처는 영어를 잘하는 개발자였고, 이는 점수로 증명할 수 있어야 했다. 대부분의 영미권 국가에서는 공학도에게 IELTS Academic Overall 6.5 점수를 요구했다. 인생에 한 번쯤은 영어를 언어학적인 접근으로 배워보고 싶기도 했지만, TOEIC, TEPS를 한 달 만에 원하는 점수를 취득했기에 이 시험도 무턱대고 도전하기 시작했다.

학생 때 영어 대신 수학 문제를 한 개 더 풀었기에, 어학에 많은 스트레스를 받을 것이 뻔했다. 그래서 일요일 오전에 모여서 각자 코딩하는 소모임에 나가기 시작했다. 만들고 싶었던 기술 스택으로 주차마다 웹페이지를 꾸며가며 정신적인 스트레스를 풀어나갔다. 국민취업지원금을 받기 위해 신청했던 토요일 정보관리기술사 강의도 오롯이 나에게 집중할 수 있는 좋은 시간이었다. 몇몇 기술사 선생님들은 내가 원하던 나의 40~50대 모습 같아 목표가 생겼다.

한 달, 두 달 기약 없이 영어 공부만 하는 시간이 지나갔다. 월 소득이 기회비용으로 환산되니 포기할 수도 없었다. 재활과 어학을 병행하는 건 벅찼다. 하지만 석 달째가 되니 뭔가 보이기 시작했다. 넉 달째가 되니 시험을 볼 수 있겠다는 자신감이 생겼다. 취업지원금을 받기 위해 면접을 봤던 회사는 주말의 코딩과 수업으로 준비가 되어있었기 때문에 한 단계씩 올라갈 수 있었다.

12월에 들어와선 매일매일 1시간 이상 진행했던 운동으로 허리 재활이 거의 끝나가는 걸 기록했던 수치와 컨디션으로 느낄 수 있었다. 장시간 앉는 걸 견딜 수 있을 인프라가 갖추어지니 시험을 볼 수 있었다. 기다리는 시간은 힘들었다. 두 가지 모두 인생 2막을 설계하기 위한 중대한 발표였다. 한 달 더 공부하기에는 내 의지가 못 버틸 것 같았다.

결과는 원하는 대학원의 진학할 수 있는 최소 요구사항을 맞췄고, 어디 가서 영어를 꽤 한다고 말할 수 있는 숫자가 나왔다. 똑똑하고 매너 있게 느껴졌던 면접관들과 같이 일할 수 있는 기회도 주어졌다. 소모임에도 꾸준함이 전해졌는지 운영진이 되었다.

2024년은 막연했던 모든 목표에 실현 가능성이 생겼다. 기술사 자격증 하나 남았지만, 디스크도 극복했는데 1년이란 시간이 있다면 어떤 것이든 못할까 싶다.

기술사 - 네트워크

· 약 9분

네트워크의 가치

  • 물리적 구성
    • NIC, 케이블, 허브
    • 라우터, 스위치
    • 기지국, 안테나
  • 논리적 구성
    • IP, MAC, Domain
    • 전화번호
    • 프로토콜
  • 정보전달의 원리: 멀리, 빠르게, 고품질로
    • 송신자 -> 전달자 -> 수신자
    • 속도 향상의 원리
    • 품질 향상의 원리
    • 먼거리 전달 원리
  • 네트워크 분류
    • 유선: PAN, LAN, WAN
    • 무선: WBAN, WPAN, WLAN
구분정보 처리(IT) 시대정보 통신(ICT) 시대
처리 형태저장, 검색, 가공, 연산유통, 공유
처리 주체컴퓨터, 제약된 공간네트워크 망, 장비
목표정보의 빠른 연산 및 처리정보의 신속, 정확, 안전한 전달
기술멀티코어, 파이프라이닝
캐시, 플래시
MEMS, 데이터마이닝
과거: 허브, 스위치, 라우터
현재: 인터넷, USN, 4G
미래: IoE, SDN, NFV
  • 정보처리시대에서 정보통신시대로 넘어오면서
    • 기회요인: 참여 공유 개방, 글로벌화
    • 위협요인: 개인정보유출, 프라이버시 침해 제거

네트워크 관련 법칙

멧갈프 법칙

  • Metcalfe's Law, 메칼프 법칙: 이더넷의 창시자
  • 네트워킹의 효과는 사용자(가입자, 노드) 수의 제곱에 비례, 네트워크의 외부성
  • 예시: SNS

길더의 법칙

  • Gilder's Law: IT칼럼니스트
  • 광섬유의 대역폭(Bandwidth)은 12개월마다 세 배씩 증가
    • 트래픽 증가는 통신 속도의 증가라고 볼 수 있음
  • 무어의 법칙으로 설명하는 직접회로 및 멤리의 증가 속도를 능가하는 광대역 통신망 설명

섀넌의 법칙

  • Shannon-Hartley theorem, 섀넌의 정리, 샤논의 정리
  • 채널용량은 대역폭과 신호 대 잡음비에 비례
C=Wlog2(1+SN)C = W \log_2(1 + \frac{S}{N})
  • C: 채널 용량
  • W: 대역폭
  • S: 신호전력
  • N: 잡음전력

네트워크 구성

네트워크의 물리적 구성

  • 교환기: 라우터
    • 가장 중요한 구성요소로 단말기들을 일시적으로 연결시켜주는 기능 제공
    • 회선 교환과 패킷 교환으로 나눠진다.
    • 패킷 교환은 Connection-Oriented 방식(TCP), Connection-Less 방식(UDP)로 나뉜다.
  • 중계기
    • 신호의 감쇄 및 왜곡을 보상하기 위해 증폭 및 재생 기능을 가지고 있음
    • 아날로그는 증폭만 가능하나, 디지털통신은 증폭과 재싱이 동시에 가능
  • 전송 및 다중화 선로
    • 전화선, 전용선
    • 광시분할 다중화
    • 광파장분할 다중화

네트워크의 논리적 구성

  • Network Address
    • 가입자를 식별하기 위한 식별자
    • 전화번호, IP, MAC, DNS, ENUM (tElephone NUmber Mapping) 등
    • DNS: 망에서는 숫자주소만 인식되나 사람의 사용 편의를 위해 문자주소를 사용함
  • 네트워크 프로토콜
    • 물리적 네트워크를 논리적으로 동작하도록 함
    • 사용자로 하여금 네트워크의 투명성 보장
    • 국제표준: OSI 7 Layer
    • 사실상의 표준: TCP/IP (이게 더 먼저 나옴, 인터넷 전용)
    • 하부계층(주로 LAN) 표준: IEEE 802, CSMA/CD, Ethernet

정보전달의 원리

데이터 통신의 원리

데이터 통신의 원리

무선 통신의 원리

무선 통신의 원리

부호화

  • 속도와 품질 향상
  • 정보를 이진코드로 변환/압축하는 소스 부호화과정과 이를 처리, 전송하는 과정에서 오류를 줄이는 변환 채널부호화 과정을 총칭

변조

  • 속도, 품질, 전송거리 향상
  • 신호 정보를 전송매체의 채널 특성에 맞게끔 신호(정보)의 세기나 변위, 주파수, 위상 등을 적합한 형태로 변환하는 과정
  • 변조 이유:
    • 전송 매체에 알맞은 변조방식 사용하여 장거리 전송 가능
    • 변조가 넓은 주파수 대역에 걸치므로 다중화 가능
    • 주파수를 높임에 따라 안테나 길이, 크기의 단축이 가능
    • ISI 등이 존재하는 채널에서 신호 대역폭을 늘려주어, 간섭효과 최소화 가능
      • Inter Symbol Interference: 심볼 간 간섭

네트워크의 분류

  • 유선
    • PAN: Personal Area, USB, HDMI
    • LAN: Local Area
    • MAN: Metro Area
    • WAN: Wide Area
  • 무선
    • WVAN: 의료목적
    • WPAN: 블루투스, NFC
    • WLAN
    • WIMAX: WIBRO, 예전에 도심에서 모바일 서비스
    • Radio

프로토콜

약속의 중요성

  • 사람을 위한 식별자: 도메인, 전화번호
  • 컴퓨터를 위한 식별자: IPv4, IPv6, MAC
  • 최단 거리를 위한 전송경로 설정: 라우팅, 포워딩(스위칭), 상태확인(ICMP)
  • 다양한 전송방식:
    • TCP, UDP, SCTP
    • 브로드캐스팅, 유니캐스팅
    • 멀티캐스팅, 애니캐스팅
  • 충돌, 지연 방지, 안전, 신속, 정확

통신프로토콜

통신프로토콜 개요

통신프로토콜 발전

통신프로토콜 기능

OSI

TCP/IP

컴퓨터를 위한 식별자

IP

ARP

사람을 위한 식별자

인터넷 주소 체계

전화번호, ENUM

전송 방식

인터넷 전송 방식

TCP

  • Transmission Control Protocol

UDP

  • User Datagram Protocol

SCTP

  • Streaming Control Transmission Protocol

라우팅 프로토콜

라우팅 알고리즘

Distance Vector Algorithm

기업용 네트워크

LAN

Inter-Networking 장비

고속 LAN

스위치

MPLS

WLAN

차세대 WLAN

CDN

가정용 네트워크

인터넷망

광가입자망

케이블망

홈네트워크

특수목적 네트워크

Ad-hoc

MANET

VANET

WMN

WBAN

WPAN

D2D

이동통신

발전단계

이동통신망

이동통신 원리

4G

4G LTE

  • Long Term Evolution

CR

  • Cognitive Radio

Handover

MIH

  • Media Independent Handover

5G

6G

네트워크 품질

IPv4 주소 효율화

IPv6

IPv4 to IPv6

모바일 IPv4

흐름 제어

오류 제어

ARQ

  • Automatic Repeat Reqeust

H-ARQ

  • Hybrid ARQ

TCP 혼잡제어

Slow start, Congestion Avoidance

Fast Retransmit, Fast Recovery

QoS

  • Quality of Service

최신 이슈

VoIP

  • Voice over IP

H.323

SIP

  • Session Initiation Protocol

MGCP

  • Media Gateway Control Protocol

H.248

  • MEGACO, MEdia Gateway Control

VoIP 프로토콜 비교

LBS 측위기술

미래 네트워크

ICN

  • Information Centric Network

SDN

  • Software Defined Network

범정부 프로젝트

  • 기가 코리아 프로젝트
  • 국가 재난 안전 통신망: PS-LTE

국가에 대한 의존성 분리

· 약 5분

개요

게임에 신규유저가 없으면 어떻게 되나?

  • 아이템 시세는 떨어지고, 화폐가치는 떨어진다.
  • 고인물만 살아남고, 그들만의 리그가 형성된다.
  • 유저 수는 점차 줄어가고, 게임사는 고인물이라도 붙잡기 위해 고인물 친화적인 이벤트를 진행한다.
  • 그러다가 신규 유저가 사라질 때쯤 버닝이벤트를 활용해 특정 레벨까지의 빠른 성장을 지원한다.
  • 아쉽게 국가는 버닝이벤트를 할 수는 없다.

이커머스 산업은 패션이 대부분의 카테고리를 차지한다.

  • 패션의 주고객층은 20-40이다. 신규 유저가 없고, 산업 전반이 감소할 수 있기에 글로벌 진출은 필수라고 이야기한다.

이민청을 신설한다고 한다. 외국인 노동자를 많이 받아들인다고 한다.

  • 글로벌 공용어는 영어다.
  • 시니어 포지션에선 그들과 커뮤니케이션 비용이 있으면 안 된다.
  • C레벨과 대화하고 보고해야하기 때문에 글도 잘 써야한다.

핵심 가치

나의 20대의 목표는 결혼과 연봉이였고, 그 목표치를 달성했다. 나의 30대의 개인 목표는 영어를 잘하는 개발자였다. 왜냐하면 21세기까진 영어를 잘하면서 서비스 전반을 다뤄본 프로그래머가 IT산업군에서는 1티어를 유지할 것 같아서다.

핵심 가치를 생각하니 결국 지긋지긋한 영어를 먼저 끝내야했다. 그렇다면 어느정도 해야 한다고 할까? 내가 생각하는 30대는 모든 스킬셋이 숫자로 증명이 되어야했다.

그 숫자는 다른 나라에 이민을 가거나 대학교를 갈 때의 수준이라고 생각했다. Reading, Listening, Writing, Speaking 을 모두 증명할 수 있는 시험은 IELTS 였고, 이 시험은 모든 영어권 국가와 학교, 회사에서 최소한의 Bilingual 조건으로 요구한다.

의존성 분리

컴퓨터공학은 아래 단어로 요약된다.

  • 알고리즘은 최소 비용, 최고 효율, 분할 정복
  • 프로그래밍은 의존성 분리, 낮은 결합도, 높은 응집도

프로그래밍은 현실세계의 개념을 차용해서 설계하고, 구현하는 것인데 언제부턴가 나는 이 개념을 반대로 적용하기 시작했다. Binary World 의 개념을 Real World 에 차용하면 대부분의 목표는 실현가능했고, 도달가능해졌다.

matrix

자격조건을 갖추니 직업 시장이 무한하게 확장되었다. 시간이 생기면 대학원에서 밀렸던 학업을 더 보강할 수도 있게 되었다. 내년부터는 밀렸던 수학 리팩토링과, 외국인들과의 게더링, 현지 답사와 현지 사람들을 만나가며 계획했던대로 인생의 세컨드 페이즈를 준비할 수 있게 되어 행복하다.

진정한 의존성 분리는 나 자신한테 먼저 해야하는거 아닐까?

참조

아이엘츠 공부 회고

· 약 43분

2023 Q4 Summary

Divide and Conquer.

  • 퇴사 후 약 4개월 간 영어에 전념할 수 있었다.
  • 한달동안 텝스한다고 삽질했던 것만 빼면 3개월간 아이엘츠를 공부하며 영어에만 몰두할 수 있었고, 정규반을 마친 뒤에는 영어 말하기,쓰기까지 커버가 되었다.
  • 물론 아카데믹 스피킹, 라이팅을 잘 하는 건 추가로 1-2개월 더 해야하지만, 이제 이 지긋지긋한 영어라는 걸 프로그래밍언어를 공부하듯 어떻게 공부하는지 깨달아서 크게 문제가 되진 않을 것 같다.
  • 모의고사에선 스피킹,라이팅 모두 6이 안정적으로 나왔고, 이제 기출을 돌릴 수 있다는 자신감이 생겼다.
  • 어느정도 언어장벽이 사라지니 새로운 경험들도 할 수 있게 되었는데, devto나 hackernews 블로그 글들을 보면 이 사람이 아카데믹 라이팅을 한 사람인지, 고딩수준(내수준)인지 바로 보인다.
  • 컨퍼런스에서 말하는것도 비슷하다, 몇몇은 두서없이 말하고, 사티아나델라같은 사람은 분명히 건너올 때 아이엘츠를 땄을 것 같다. 요즘엔 막연한 꿈이 feasible한 꿈이 되었기에, 두 페이지가 되는 지문을 봐도 그렇게 힘들지는 않다. 그리고 아무도 겪어보지 못한 페이즈로 접어들고 있는 국가에 대한 의존성을 분리할 수 있기에 가장으로서의 걱정도 사라졌다.
  • 한편, 동기의 시간을 잠깐 뺏어 서로의 히스토리를 공유할 수 있었는데, 그의 가치관이 나와 비슷해서 너무 재밌었다. 나보다 똑똑한 사람이 나랑 똑같은 생각을 하고 있다는게 방향성을 잘 잡았다는 반증같아서 그랬다.
  • 의료업계는 미국가면 4억부터 팔린다는 걸 듣고, 간호사분들이 왜 몇몇 있었는지, 간호사 증명하면 학원에서 할인을 해주는지 알 것 같았다.
  • 면접도 걱정보단 잘 진행되어 최종 단계까지 오게되었다. 역시 인터뷰는 가벼운 마음으로 본 것들이 합격률이 좋다. 여기엔 일요일마다 3-4시간씩 코딩을 꾸준히 집중해서 했던 게 주효했다.
  • 기술자는 주방장이 칼을 가는 것 마냥 계속 단련이 되어있어야하지만, 회사는 여러가지를 아울러 일하는 Problem solver 를 좋아한다, 그렇지만 회사가 좋아하는 인재가 되는거지, 시장에서의 상품가치는 점점 떨어진다. 다시 "내 코드가 상품성이 있어졌다" 라는 게 검증되었으니, 이제 회사에 대한 의존성을 분리하는 일만 남았다. 그 답은 PE가 되는 것이였고, 어떻게 공부하는지 알았기에 시간만 쏟으면 달성할 수 있는 목표가 되었다.
  • 메모어 이전엔 달마다 회고를 했었다. 13기를 끝내니 주차단위 회고가 세부 계획을 미세조정하는데에 장점이 더 있었다.
  • 개인 일에도 지라를 썼었는데, 생각보다 태스크 생성, 워크 로깅에 시간이 많이 들어간다, 금/토요일 사이, 일/월 사이로 루틴을 잡는게 집중이 분산되지 않아 좋았다.
  • 최근엔 같은 MBTI인 분을 만나게되어 "님 제 성격이시면 업무적이 아닌 개인적으로도 회고하시죠?" 라고 했더니 "네 달마다해요" 라길래 그 분에게도 여기오면 재밌을거라고 추천했는데, 올 지는 잘 모르겠다.

Weekly Retrospecitves

Sep, W1

  • Keep

    • IELTS
    • 후반부 인강 진도율 퀘스트처럼 채우기
    • Reading 54% Writing 29% Listening 28% Speaking 38%
    • 시간 절약을 위해 초록 보카 따로 외우지 않고 빈출 위주로 보기, 엑셀 발음, 악센트 정리
    • 코딩
    • 지금처럼 일요일에만 관심갖기
  • Problem

    • 스피킹은 인강을 보는 의미가 크게 있나 싶음
    • 라이팅은 문장을 쓰는 패턴만 들어가는데 다음 주차에 갑자기 난이도가 어려워질 것 같음
    • It is ... for so to sth: so 가 sth을 하기 ... 하다. 생각보다 많이 사용되는데 for 를 저 위치에 넣는 게 바로바로 안나옴
    • 지난주 PNG metadata 에 꽂혀서 새벽까지 시간을 낭비한게 아쉬움 (6h)
      • tEXT Metadata 삭제 및 zTXt metadata 를 쓰는데에 성공했으나, pngtweak으로 열어봤을 때 zTXt가 보이지 않음
      • inflate 압축푼거랑 crc 가 잘뜨는 metadata랑 다른지 확인해봐야함
    • 구직촉진수당 프로그래머스 강의가 생각보다 시간이 많이 소요됨 (5h)
      • 9월 8일까지 제출해야하나 9월 6일 만료 후 수료증을 받을 수 없어서 문의 시간 (1h) 추가 소요
  • Try

    • 시트에 패턴이나 매직센턴스 위주로 기록해두기
    • 최빈출은 그대로 외우기
    • 준비하는 모임을 따로 찾아야할듯 가보고 아니면 다시 W,S 반만 단과 재수강
    • 간단한 패턴들 필사해두기
      • It is getting harder for low-skilled workers to find employment.
      • It is important for parents to spend quality time with their children.
    • 코드는 1d 정도 더 보면 해결 가능할 것 같은데, 그만 보기
    • 일회성 담주엔 없어질 예정

Sep, W2

  • Keep
    • 후반부 인강 진도 완료
      • Reading 89% Writing 82% Listening 86% Speaking 88%
    • 리딩과 리스닝은 한 두 문제 빼고 다 맞는데 progressive test 와 (20문제) actual test (40문제) 차이가 있긴해도 이정도만 유지했으면..
    • 코딩: 적게 관심 갖기, 일요일만 모각코
    • 개인채널이 생각보다 관심이 많아서 뿌듯
    • 운동
      • 데드나 풀업이나 잘 되어서 기분 좋은 한 주였음
      • 백스쿼트 다시 할 수 있게 꾸준히 재활하기
  • Problem
    • IELTS
      • L: 단답형에서 생각보다 쉬운 단어인데 막상 적어본적이 없으니 스펠링 틀린 것.
      • R: 문제 잘 안 읽어서 틀리는 것.
      • W: 문단을 시작하는 템플릿들은 잘 적어도, 주제에 있어서 특징들을 그럴듯하게 뽑아내는게 안 됨, 한국어로도 안됨..
      • S: Part1의 모범답안은 참조용도로만 써야지 그걸 떠올리려고하면 말이 더 안나옴, Part2, Part3는 많은 주제를 접해봐야함 아직까진 그럴듯하게 거짓말을 하는게 안됨.
    • PNPM + Turbo monorepo 조합에 생각보다 패키지 관련 문제가 있어서 히스토리를 파악하는데 꽤 걸림. (4h)
      • resolution-mode 8.7에서 원상태로 돌렸다고 찾았으나 로컬에서는 이슈가 재현되었고
      • public-hoist-pattern[] 는 .npmrc 에 정의하면 기존 eslint 가 먹지않아서 이것도 추가해줘야함, 설명에 override 된다고 있었으면 한데 아쉬움.
    • 운동
      • 신전을 30분 이상 유지할 때가 많았는데, 이게 저림의 원인인걸 찾아냄.
      • 손목닥터 뽑혔는데 하루 8천보 찍기가 만만치않음.
    • 기타: 아이엘츠 관련 모임 (3h)
  • Try
    • L: 틀린 것 여러번 적어봐서 익히기
    • R: 잘 하자
    • W: Grammer Intermediante은 심심할 때마다 풀어보면서 문법 기억하기.
    • S: 직장인 2분 말하기 따라읽기 많은 주제를 접할 수 있을 것 같음, 빈출 문제들을 내 경험위주로 바꾸고 태깅하는 형태로 변경.
    • 일회성, next.js app dir로 마이그레이션할 때 하루는 걸릴 것 같아서 엄두가 안남.
    • 신전은 10분 이하로만..
    • 데일리로 1.5h 헬스장에 4000보 걷는데, 2배로 늘리려면 2~2.5h 를 운동에 써야하는데 포인트 모을 수 있을까..?
    • 일회성, 그냥 Intermediante W,S단과 + 스터디까지하고, 11월에 응시하는 걸로.

Sep, W3

  • Keep
    • 리딩 리스닝 아카데믹 20문제씩 꾸준히 풀기
    • 스피킹 2분 말하기 쉐도잉 하기
    • 라이팅 인터미디엇 문법책 두챕터정도 풀고, 내가 데일리로 뭐했는지 짧게 스토리 쓰기
    • 코딩
      • 적게 관심 갖고 일요일만 모각코, 다음주는 휴가 갔다와야해서 주중에 좀 더 봤음.
    • 운동
      • 백스쿼트 8개월만에 다시 했는데 맛있었다.
      • 이제 안 다치고 가동범위 늘리면서 하나씩 정상궤도로 올려놓기.
  • Problem
    • 리딩 섹션3,4는 다 맞을 생각하지 말라고 그러는데,, 틀리고 오답노트하면 맞을 수 있을 것 같은데 하는 오기가 좀 생김.. 버려야하는데 걱정..
    • 리스닝 이름 알파벳적는건 좀 익숙해졌는데 전화번호 불러주는 패턴이 생각보다 어려움.. 익숙해질때까지 매일매일 접해봐야할듯.
      • 오더블세븐더블오나인포오투에잇원 === 07700940281
    • 라이팅은 언제해도 어려운데 학원 등록한 것만 믿고 있음. 왜 해커스 오피셜로 1등급 맞던애들이 3개월 걸린다는지 체감하는 중..
    • Next.js App router 의 점진적인 마이그레이션 포스트 때문에 점진적으로 뭔가가 될 줄 알았으나 nextauth + trpc 조합은 예시가 실행이 안 됨.
    • 공식적으로 제공하지 않는 이상 다시 마음 먹지 않기.
  • Try
    • 꾸준히 보기, 꾸준히 듣기
    • 데일리로 운동한거 정도만 작문 글쓰고 지피티로 첨삭받기
    • 앱디렉토리 이젠 정말 그만보기

Oct, W1

  • Keep
    • 아이엘츠 중급반 숙제 잘 따라가기
    • 리스닝, 리딩은 감 떨어지지 않게 하루 한 지문이라도 꾸준히 풀기
    • 캠브릿지10 PDF 풀기
  • Problem
    • 스피킹 Part2 노트테이킹 방법이 선생님들마다 조금씩 다른데, 템플릿을 이미 예전 선생님걸로 외워버려서 연습해가지고 걱정됨.
    • 스터디 신청을 했으나 단어 오답 수로 벌금차감을 한다는 소문을 들어 걱정됨. 10대 친구들만 없으면 좋겠음 머리로 못 따라가니까.
      • 이젠 이해가 안 되는데 강제로 뭔가를 머리에 넣는게 힘듦.
    • 라이팅 브레인스토밍도 만만치 않음, 주장-근거-부연설명으로 가는 플로우가 창작의 영역이라 인풋-아웃풋만 하던 나한텐 너무 어렵다.
      • GPT의 도움을 받긴하는데 이걸 계속 이렇게 해도 되는건지 잘 모르겠다.
      • 가끔 번뜩 떠오르는 아이디어는 내 수준에서 영어로 옮길 수 없는 어려운 한국단어들 뿐이다.
    • Computer based vs Paper based 의 차이가 고민되어 국내외 영상들을 찾아보고 나름대로 정리하는데 시간을 좀 뺏김 (2h)
    • 캠브릿지10 책 중고로 찾는데 시간을 좀 허비했다. 근데 캠브릿지10 PDF랑 음원이랑 다 인터넷에 돌아녔다.. 미리 좀 알았으면 (2h)
  • Try
    • 일단 이번주 숙제까지 예전 선생님 스타일로 하고, 첨삭되는 걸 보고 변경하기
    • 일단 신청을 했고 오늘자로 신청한사람이 많이 없다고하니까.. 미리 걱정하지 말기
    • 이건 많이 접해봐야 되는건지 감도 안 온다. 다음 주 초까지 이상태면 질문메일 보내보기로.. 물론 "많이 접해봐야된다"가 답일 것 같긴하지만...
    • Computer based 로 마음을 정했다. 가장 큰 이유는 라이팅 때문
      • 영타 300타 이상 나오니까 필기로 썼다지웠다가 할바에 이게 더 효율적일 것 같았음.
      • 리딩은 가독성이 이슈라고 하는데, 맨날 보던게 개발 공식 문서들이니 어느정도 괜찮을 것 같았고..
      • 리스닝은 헤드셋을 착용할 수 있다고해서 다른사람 종이넘기는 제스쳐에 집중이 안 흐트러질것 같았음.
      • 게다가 앉아서 숙인 다음에 3시간을 버틸 허리가 아니니까 어쩔 수 없을듯.
  • 자주보는 채널인 쿠르츠게작트에 왜 한국이 죽어가는가에 대한 영상이 올라왔다.
    • 한국인들 베댓이 많이 보이는데, 다들 같은 사회상을 걱정하고 있는 것 같아 영어공부 동기부여 짤이 하나 더 추가되었다.

Oct, W2

  • Keep
    • 아이엘츠 중급반 숙제 잘 따라가기
    • 리스닝, 리딩은 감 떨어지지 않게 하루 한 지문이라도 꾸준히 풀기
    • 리딩은 확실히 지난주보다 좋아졌다. 세 가지 그룹 문제를 머리 속에 넣고, 숨은그림찾기하듯 각각의 키워드를 매칭시킨 뒤 앞뒤 주변을 읽어 패러프레이징한 단어들을 걸러내는 스킬이 필요한데 점차 나아지는 것 같다.
    • 정보처리기술사가 정보관리기술사로 바뀐 것도 모르고, 첫 수업을 들었는데 이건 CIO, CTO를 만들어주는 시험이란 생각이 들었다. 왜 회사에서 임원진으로 데려가는지 알 것 같았다.
    • 융합IT의 전반적인 걸 공부하고. 이걸로 면접 대비도 할 수 있을 것 같다.
    • 모든 토픽들에 대해 마인드맵을 만들고, 아이엘츠 라이팅/스피킹 공부하듯이 접근하면 언젠간 딸 수 있을 것 같다.
  • Problem
    • 리스닝
      • 캠브릿지10 MP3이 더이상 캠브릿지 사이트에서 제공되지 않아서 2만원을 날린 느낌이였다, 그냥 유튜브에 있는걸로 풀걸
      • 캠브릿지10은 섹션3,4도 잘 들린다. 난이도가 시험보단 낮은거 같아 꾸준히 딕테이션과 쉐도잉을 하지만 효용성이 있을지 약간 의문스럽다. (아마 제너럴아이엘츠 수준인듯)
    • 라이팅
      • 알면 알수록 어렵다. 특히 부연설명을 위한 ,while V ,with O Ving 패턴은 이해는 되지만 어느 경우에 써야하는지 아직 감은 잘 안온다.
      • Part1 다이어그램 해석 지문은 Part2 의 주제별 브랜스토밍 후 글짓기를 하는 것보단 희망적이다. 하지만 아직 손에 익지는 않아 패턴들을 조합하는 중.
    • 스피킹
      • 스피킹은 기존 직장인2분말하기 책을 학원가는 도중에 쉐도잉하는데, 효용성이 크게 없는 것 같다.
      • 이것도 여러 문제 패턴들 중에서 정규화 된 답안을 내야하는데 그걸 연관되어 생각하는게 아직 힘들다. 예를들면 사람 -> 부모님 -> 사려깊은, 존경받는, 친구 -> 웃긴, 좋은 성격, 유명한사람 -> 개그맨 -> 웃긴, 모범이되는 이런 키워드들이 머리 속에 매핑이 되어있어야한다.
      • 필러를 쓸 수 있는 시험도 아니고, 막힘 없이 말해야하기 때문에 내 경험을 말하면 안 되지만 자꾸 경험을 떠오르게 된다.
    • 디스크 재활이 성공적으로 진행중인줄 알았는데 새로운 좌골 통증이 생겼다. 이런
  • Try
    • 문맥상으로는 이해하지만 쉐도잉하면 못 기억하는 부/관사 때문이라도 일단은 꾸준히 해봐야할 것 같다. 하고 후회하는게 그 반대보단 낫겠지..
    • 라이팅 숙제는 잘 따라가고 있지만 커리큘럼이 끝났을 때 실제 지문들을 도전할 수 있을지 좀 두렵다. 근데 계속 꾸준히 해야한다.
    • 아이엘츠 아카데믹이 대학 입학을 할 수 있냐는 시험이니, 외노자가 되려면 대학생보단 영어를 잘해야지 않나 하는 마음에 하루에도 몇번씩 마음을 다잡는중..
    • C++보단 빠르게 마스터하겠지..
    • 스피킹
      • 이건 전략을 바꿔야할 것 같다. 기존 책에서 쌤의 베스트 답안을 다운받아서 들으면서 그 기준으로 계속 쉐도잉을 해야할 것 같다.
      • GPT와 대화하는 기능으로 아이엘츠 선생님 한명이 생겼는데 특정 주제의 질답을 하는 건 좋으나 여행영어 수준으로만 대화가 가능하다. 짜임새 있게, 정규화된 답변을 말하는건 스피킹 레벨을 한단계 올려야 가능하다. 하루종일 외국인 멘토가 붙어있는것도 아니니 일단 따라해야 체득이 되고 거기서 변화를 줘야할 것 같다.
      • 주제에 대해 키워드 맵을 만들어 나가고 있다. 아직 Part1만 진행중이라 주말에 Part2, 3에 대해도 매핑을 해놓고 녹음->딕테->수정을 반복하며 좀 더 입에 붙는 패턴들을 써야할듯하다.
      • 내 경험을 말하지 않는 연습을 어떻게 할 수 있을까? 예를들어 unusual meal 에 대해서 질문이 오면, 난 푸팟퐁커리가 생각나고 태국/게살/맛있음/비많이옴 하며 추억에 잠기면서 망해버린다.
      • 푸팟퐁커리 대신 김치라면/동네/인기음식점/K전통음식/unusual 한거잖아 라면에 김치 넣는게/Heavy meal but affordable/ 라고 1분안에 떠올라야 좋은 점수를 받을 수 있을 것 같다.
    • 주말 하루는 어깨만 대신 먹고, 많이 걷고 걸은만큼 쉬어줘야겠다. 80%정도 복구했다고 착각한듯. 여러모로 건강하지 못한 육체에 불안한 정신이 깃든 한 주

Oct, W3

  • Keep
    • 아이엘츠 중급반 숙제 잘 따라가기
    • 스피킹 하루에 두 질문씩 녹음/대답 반복하기
    • 유튭 보지말고, 기술사 융합IT 강의 이동시간마다 듣기
  • Problem
    • 레퍼쳌 해드렸던 분이 원하시는 기업으로 잘 옮기셔서 저녁 접대를 받았는데, 오랫만에 새벽까지 술마시니 술 때문에 발이 저린건지 운동 때문에 저린건지 생활 패턴때문에 저린건지 통증 디버깅이 안되었다. 30분 투자한 것치고 넘 호사를 누린것 같기도 했다. 내가 외노자가 될 때 +82로 레퍼런스 번호 달아놓겠다고 했는데 그 이후 얼마나 해드려야할지 감이 안온다 :웃으며눈물을흘리는_얼굴:
    • 스피킹 수업시간에 짝지와 함께 질답을 하는 방식이 추가되었는데, 둘다 멘붕에 빠졌다. 아 그렇지~ 면서 하나씩 아이디어 추가하면서 질답하는데, 이게 맞는 방향인지 지금 생각해도 웃기다. 그래도 연습했던 문제들은 약간 편해졌다.
    • 기술사 숙제는 전자정부표준프로세스 전체를 요약하는 등의 서술형인데, 영어 공부때문에 언제 할 수 있을지 모르겠다. 벌써 3주차가 밀려서 하루는 족히 써야할텐데..
  • Try
    • 다시 금주하고 이번주는 몸 컨디션을 체크하기
    • 멘붕에 빠질 시간이면 그냥 모범답안을 두 세번 따라 읽는걸로 전략을 바꿨다 녹음도 원테이크 말고 될때까지 5-10번 지금처럼 하고..
    • 리스닝 2h 리딩 1h 스피킹 2h 라이팅 2h + 수업 이 루틴을 일일퀘스트마냥 유지하자.
    • 이건 당장의 우선순위가 높지 않으니 개요랑 숙제 목록만 모아놓고, 지금처럼 이동시간에 강의만 듣는걸로..

Oct, W4

  • Keep
    • 공부 사이클 유지
    • 금주에 trial test 가 있었고, 처음으로 라이팅,스피킹 문제를 돌발로 접해봄. 라이팅은 약간의 치팅, 스피킹도 1분 노트테이킹보다 2배 더 걸렸지만, 그래도 250단어 에세이, 1분40초 프리젠테이션이 가능해짐.
    • 이제 정규반 갈 실력이 된것 같아서 기분 좋은 한주
    • 운동도 약하게 올렸더니 7.5/10 까지 다시 회복.
  • Problem
    • 라이팅, 리스닝 패턴들 미숙한 거 연습으로 해결 필요
    • 이제 영어가 좀 보여서 생활계획표 원판을 완성할 수 있었는데, 생각보다 만족스런 앱이나 웹이 없었음.. 대충 planpapers 사이트에서 처리
    • 시험을 11월에 보려고했는데 아직은 실력이 안되어서 그걸론 취업연계 제출을 못하고 아무기업이나 이력서 하나 내고 증빙해야하는게 시간 뺏겨야해서 걱정.
  • Try
    • 건강과 공부 사이클을 유지하면 될 것 같다. 추워지기전에 마무리하고 12월 시험 보는걸로!
    • 겨울엔 밋업 다니면서 영어 쓰고, 밀렸던 코딩들 하면서 영어면접 트러블슈팅할 생각에 벌써 기분좋다.
    • 기술사 자료들도 정리하면 리더, C레벨 미팅 때 도움이 많이 될것 같아 빨리 해두고 싶다.

Nov, W1

중급반 성료.

  • 7월, 정규반에 갔다가 2주 만에 내가 있을 곳이 아니다 라고 판단해서 환불하고, 베이직 문법 책 정리하고, 1분 말하기 책부터 다시 리팩토링하고, 기본반 인터넷 강의로 베이직 교제 다 끝내고, 중급반에 오니까 쌤이 뭐라고 말하는지 좀 들렸다.
  • 첫 주는 호기롭게, 둘째 주는 멘붕하고, 셋째 주는 그냥 하라는거나 잘해보고, 넷째 주에 오니 어? 이게 되네 가 되었다.
  • 영어 일기 밖에 안 써봤던 K인재인 내가 뭐가 되었던 엣세이를 쓰고 1분30초 동안 발표한다니 놀랐다. (아직은 5.5수준이지만..)
  • 이제 GPT가 뱉어내는 영어 산출에 오류들이 보이기 시작한다. 심지어 꽤 많다, 확률로 처리하기 때문인지 전반적인 시제 통일도 못 한다. 왜 통번역가분들이 아직은 GPT로 번역가를 대체할 수 없다라고 했는지도 알 것 같다.
  • IELTS 를 유튜브에 검색하면 대부분 1달완성이라고 나오는걸 보고, 과대광고인지도 모르고 그래 이번 기회에 영어 좀 제발 끝내자, 어차피 잘하는 사람들 물어보면 한 번은 빡세게 했던 때가 있다니까 라며 호기롭게 도전을 선언했는데 지금와서 다시 그 영상들을 보니 애들 혀가 다 꼬여있었다.
  • 프로그래밍에 비유한다면 2주 완성 정보처리기사나, 초봉 5,000만원 3개월 완성 국비지원과정일 것 같다.
  • 정규반에 오니 K인재들은 거의 없고, 예전처럼 대부분이 유학파다,
  • 머리가 더 굳기 전에 방향 전환을 해서 다행이다싶었지만, 하루에도 몇 번씩 한숨은 나온다. 오히려 개발할 때보다 샷건(?)도 많이 치는 것 같다.
  • 프로그래밍에 대한 경로만 최적화 되어있는 뇌를 학습시키는게 쉽지 않다.
  • 바깥 양반에게 양해를 구하고, 휴대폰에 데일리 퀘스트랑 사전, 녹음기, 엑셀, 뱅킹 빼고 메신저를 포함하여 다른 모든 앱을 삭제했다,
  • 난 지인들에게 매번 공중전화쓰던 시절이 삶에 느림과 기다림이 있었던 시절이라고 말하고 다녔는데, (요즘엔 낭만이 있던 시절로도 불리는 듯)
  • 공부를 핑계로 그 시절로 잠시 돌아갈 수 있어서 좋다. Digital Immigrant 이기에 어쩔 수 없나보다.

Nov, W2

  • Keep
    • 공부 사이클 유지
    • 일일퀘스트를 잘 달성하고 있다.
    • 바깥 분 출장으로 인해 달성이 가능했던건지, 아니면 스킬셋이 올라서 가능했던건지 이번주에 테스트해볼 수 있을듯.
    • Writing Part1 쓰는게 어느 정도 된다. 쓸데없이 패러프레이징 안하면 7.0부터 시작한다는 이야기에 모든 페러프레이징을 내려놓고 맞는/아는 것만 쓰기로 마음먹었다.
    • 언어능력은 얼마나 아느냐가 아니라 단어 뒤에 어떤 말이 올지 빠르게 가져다가 붙히는거라고 하는데, 이제 약간씩 되는 것 같다. 녹음하고, 원래 말하려던걸 체크하고, 오답노트하고 5번말하기 스텝으로 반복하면 효과가 많이 나올것 같다.
    • 운동 사이클 유지
    • 원인모를 왼발 통증으로 고생을 좀 했는데, 그 원인을 카프레이즈라고 생각해서 금요일에 스쿼트/불스스/카프레이즈 3단으로 조졌더니 오히려 풀렸다.
    • 재활 10개월차인 지금 두려움을 좀 버리고, 워밍업을 약간 덜하면서 루틴을 유지해야할 것 같다.
    • 노파심에 사용하고 있던 방석이 오히려 더 허리에 무리를 주고 있었다. 없앴더니 좀 더 편해졌다.
  • Problem
    • 스피킹 시간이 쌤 건강 악화로 진행되지 못해서 개인적으론 약간 아쉬웠지만 많이 걱정되기도 했다. 저 사람은 10시간씩 일하면서 밤에는 학생들 첨삭까지 해줘야하는데, (첨엔 조교들이 할것 같기도 했는데 나중에 질문하면 다 기억하고 있다.)
      • 과연 언제 뇌가 쉴까? 나중에 스트레스 매니징을 어떻게 하는지 물어봐야겠다.
    • 라이팅 파트2 에세이 쓰는건 아직 배우지는 않았지만 어휘력이 딸려서 막연히 두렵다. 단어나 필수 표현들을 외워도 딱 그때 뿐이고 이걸 연결시켜야하는데, 뇌한테 "왜" 가 아닌 "어떻게" 라고 질문해도 뭐가 잘 붙지는 않는다. 담주엔 그 비법도 알게 되었으면...
    • 리스닝에 정체기가 왔다. 컨디션 좋을 떈 8도 나왔는데 요샌 7정도로밖에 못 듣는다. 갑자기 안들리는 것도 아닌데, 그 단어를 들으려고 너무 집중해서 질문 보기를 보고 있어서일까?
    • 캠브릿지10,17 을 통근시간마다 듣는데 아직까진 큰 효과는 없는 것 같지만, 공부했던 모든 사람(쌤, 후기 등) 무조건 많이 듣는게 좋다그래서 계속 진행중..
  • Try
    • 라이팅 캠브릿지 기출문제 풀어보기
    • 스피킹 Part3 하루 한 개라도 해보기
    • 이제 이 사이클로 3번만 반복하면 끝날것 같아 괜찮았던 한주.

Nov, W3

  • Keep
    • 공부 사이클 유지
    • 아이엘츠 스피킹도 기출문제를 접해볼 정도의 수준이 되었다, 이유는 짧게 TMI는 길게 말해야한다는 게 이해가 되었고, 문법상 오류는 있지만 (전치사) 시제는 잘 버무려서 말이 나온다.
    • 파트3는 아이디어를 브레인스토밍하는데 상당한 시간이 걸리지만 주어를 그룹으로 묶고 갈라쳐서 이야기하면 되는데 한주 더 달리면 어느정도 감이 올 것 같다.
    • 운동 사이클 유지
    • 다친 뒤로 운동 사이클을 처음으로 다 완료한 주였는데, 넘 기뻤다. 이번주도 이대로만 가면 될 것 같다. 불가리안 스플릿 스쿼트는 할 때는 죽을맛인데, 하고나선 허리가 너무 편해진다. 오히려 런지보다도 부담도 덜가는 것 같고..
    • 풀업, 불스스는 무슨일이 있어도 하루에 한세트는 진행하는 운동으로 가져가야할듯..
  • Problem
    • 리딩 파트1 13분 파트2 15분 파트3 19분 으로 끊어야 된다고하는데, 생각보다 더 타이트해서 이동시간에 보카앱을 보는 전략으로 바꿨다. 등교시엔 보카앱, 퇴근시엔 캠17 한 세트 (30분) 들으면 딱이다.
    • 스피킹은 사전을 찾아보는 습관이 있는데, 이렇게하면 절대 안 는다는 피드백을 받아서 충격이였다. 그냥 돌발로 녹음하고 절어도 1분 타이머 넣고 끊고, 그리고 다시듣고, 아이디어용 키워드 정리하고, 담준 이렇게 5일을 채워보기로.
    • 리스닝은 처음부터 집중을 해야하는데, 설마 지금 중요한 이야기하겠어? 라고 간과하다가 젤 쉬운 첫문제들을 틀린다. 문제좀 잘보자.
    • 라이팅은 쓸데없이 패러프레이징 하지말자. 패러프레이징은 감각이고, 아카데믹라이팅을 별도로 시간 내서 공부해야한다. 틀리면 6점이고, 복붙하면 7.5까지 나온다고한다.
    • 난 백일장이후론 에세이라는걸 한글로도 안 써본 사람이니 괜히 까불지말자. 입장, 근거, 예시, 설명, 정리 패턴으로 써보는 연습을 해야한다.
  • Try
    • 실전스피킹 3개국어하는 분들도 생소한 주제가 나오면 전다는 걸 깨달았다. 그냥 기출문제보고 피하지말고, 제일 하기 싫은 스피킹부터 복습하고 나머지 숙제를하자.
    • 내 분야로 아는게 많으면 더 말하기가 어렵다고한다, 초등학생한테 말할 주제를 선정하자.

Nov, W4

  • Keep
    • 아쉬움이 많은 한 주이지만 담주는 열심히, 약간 잘 되네? 했다가다고 다음날 아 왜이렇게 안되지? 의 반복이라 기분이 롤러코스터를 타는데 평정심을 찾자.
  • Problem
    • 면접때문에 영어공부 사이클이 좀 깨졌다. 긴장이 풀렸기도하고 보상심리때문에 그날 하루는 놀아버렸다.
    • 파트3 질문에 이상한 게 나오면 아예 망해버린다. 결제한 시험일정을 취소했다.
    • 노트테이킹을 잘 보라는 피드백을 받으면 노트테이킹만 보다가 아이컨택트를 못하고, 아이컨택트를 해야한다는 피드백을 받으면 노트테이킹을 안본다.. 하..
    • 면접 - 난 대면면접은 하나도 안 떠는데, 대면으로 화이트보드에 그림그리는것을 포함해서 (사실 즐기는 편), 화상면접과 화상라이브코딩은 취약했다.
    • 이번은 라이브코딩을 한번 겪어봐서인지 그렇게 많이 떨지는 않았고 제대로 설명을 했다.
    • 인사팀이 경력/제출한 코드 위주로 설명을 할거라고 문서를 줘서, 신입검증용 질문을 하지 않을 줄 알고 집중을 약간 덜한게 아쉬웠다. 항상 Cs 지식을 보는데 면접 때 묻는 곳은 없는듯. 그건 기초체력으로 보고 신입면접용 질문들을 면접 한 시간 전쯤 보는걸로.
    • 엣지케이스를 물어본게 많아서 과연 다 잘 대답하는 사람이 있을까 싶다. 덕분에 이제 뇌리에 제대로 남았지만 :바닥을구르면서웃기:
    • 반에 피앙세가 있다는 예비 유부남이 시험일을 물어보며 게더링을 시도했지만 하필 그날이 면접날이라 너무 시니컬하게 대답한 것 같다. 담엔 국밥이라도 먹자고 해봐야지..
  • Try
    • 정규반을 잘 소화하는 거에 박수를 치고 싶지만 수능에 빗대면 이제야 6월모의고사 끝낸 느낌이다.
    • yourielts 최신 기출과 캠브릿지 18을 1-2주간 잘 돌리고, computer based 시험도 한 사이클 돌리고 시험을 보는게 나을 것 같다. 올해 끝내자

IELTS Speaking 기출 오답노트

· 약 7분

D1

  • Some young people prefer to get together with those who are not cowards.
  • They want to prove their strength by engaging in adventurous activities.
  • I think it varies, depending on people.
  • but others are physically old, so they can't go out to do adventurous activities.
  • By doing adventurous activities, people can feel a sense of achievement.
  • These challenging activities make them fully satisfied.
  • In water activities, they should learn how to swim.
  • In the case of outdoor activities like climbing, they should have strength, particularly in their arms.
  • They can catch up with their friends by doing exciting things.
  • Friendship makes people more active.
  • They usually have more opportunities to meet others. This helps them avoid loneliness.

D2

  • one of the best players in his league.
  • a member of the national team.
  • According to the news, his salary is over 100 million dollars.

D3

  • They want to wake up by drinking coffee.
  • In the morning, I always make hand-dripped coffee and take it when I go to the academy or work.
  • There are coffee shops on every corner.
  • If my friends are in trouble, I always try to call them and listen to their concerns.

D4

  • My parents always teach me to help others with a true heart.
  • Actually, I don't need to explain, as she is my mother.
  • When she cooked for me and my sister, and we finished eating the food and told her it was delicious, she was always happy.
  • She has certificates for cooking, so I suppose she really enjoys cooking itself.

D5

  • People who have their own house are usually judged as successful.
  • Individuals like Son Heung-min, who are popular and accomplished in their field, are generally considered successful.
  • Some people consider others as successful based on their job.
  • Success can be measured by different things, such as popularity, wealth, or occupation.
  • Others may consider factors like occupation or popularity to be true measures of success.
  • This is because it allows me to catch up with them and get updates.
  • I share my exercise routine and daily activities, and I also send them pictures.
  • Sometimes I prefer chatting with just one friend, especially if I need to share a secret.
  • I'm a people person, so I prefer to meet my friends in person.
  • but, I haven't argued with my friends recently.
  • In fact, without luck or the right opportunities, hardworking people might fail to succeed.
  • I think education plays an important role in achieving success.
  • If someone is trying to get money from investors, having a good education can really help.
  • Some people read movie reviews because they want to know how good or funny the movie is.
  • By checking reviews, they can better decide which movie to watch.
  • Reviewers can only write about a movie after they have watched it, so people consider these reviews to be real and truthful.
  • These kinds of movies are usually boring and have long screen times, so people prefer to enjoy other types of movies.
  • People often check who the main character is. If the actor is famous, they are more likely to go to watch the movie.
  • There are so many photos that come to my mind, but I have to say a photo taken in Thailand.
  • I can recall that time, such as swimming on the beach and eating various local foods.
  • When I see the photo, I remember how much I love traveling. It makes me excited to think about saving money for future trips.

D6

  • I can ride around the park to enjoy nature.
  • I really enjoyed riding my bike because I could play with my friends.
  • I learned to ride a bike in just three days.
  • It allows people to easily borrow bikes.
  • It's the fastest way to learn, just like my father taught me.
  • I have several feelings about her. First of all, I'm impressed.
  • This is because her Korean skills are improving rapidly, and her pronunciation is very accurate.
  • I'm encouraged by her progress. Her improving Korean skills inspire me to learn English, so I have started to memorize English words every single day.
  • When people make an effort every day it helps them become smart and always leads to success.
  • We can help children realize their talents by involving them in extracurricular activities based on their hobbies.
  • The government provides many forms of financial support for students, like tuition.
  • Many students use this support to reduce their university fees.

D7

  • There is traffic noise and other noises, like when we go out, there is always loud music playing.
  • I hear noise every day. It's mostly K-pop songs. They play everywhere I go, even if I don't want to listen.

D8

  • He won the Asian Games and also received the Player of the Year award.
  • He has lots of expereiences, so people can relay on him for practical advice.
  • He has such a good sense of humor. so people smile whenever they watch his interview on TV.

D9

  • There are various genres, such as sci-fi and action, by playing these kinds of games, people can relieve their stress.
  • They want to achieve success or win prizes. Others play games just for fun and to relieve stress.
  • competition encourages children to make an effort in their education and learning skills, and it also teaches them the value of perseverance and hard work.
  • They have negative effects on children because they can easily become addicted to playing them.
  • It has many playable characters, so children can play using a different character every single game.
  • Outdoor games encourage people to stay healthy and to socialize with others.
  • In terms of mental benefits, children can relieve stress through team games, and they can also learn about cooperation.
  • In the case of offline games, specifically outdoor games, baseball is the most popular in Korea.
  • Winning a game gives them a sense of achievement and helps to relieve stress.
  • Video games are often violent and exciting, which means these factors can make people addicted to video games.
  • After exercising, some people feel proud of themselves because they can experience a sense of accomplishment.
  • They might get a big reward when they finish a difficult task.
  • I believe it is a good place to live.
  • This might sound funny, but I wanted to remove a stone in front of the school because I sometimes tripped over it
  • In fact, I want to live in the United Arab Emirates because I think it is the safest place in the world.
  • I think a person who doesn't have their dream is like a dead person.
  • Having a dream makes people learn about many things and study regularly.

D10

  • It is also situated on the Korean Peninsula.
  • Most Koreans live in Seoul, which is located in the northwest side of Korea. It is also the capital city of Korea
  • I think the main industry in Korea is the semiconductor industry. This is because Samsung is the most famous company in Korea, specializing in this field.
  • One of the good things about living in my country is the convenience of public transportation.
  • It's easy to use because I can check the schedule and predict when the bus will arrive.
  • One of the drawbacks of living in my country is the transportation restrictions due to North Korea.
  • This limitation means we have to use planes instead of trains when traveling to other countries.
  • I feel proud of my country because of its safety. To be specific, there are a lot of CCTVs at any place in Korea. It helps to prevent crimes.
  • that is the reason why I'm studying for the IELTS

IELTS Speaking 기출 Part3

· 약 28분

activity

  • Can you give some other examples of adventurous or risky activities?
    • transparent cable car.
    • scared but overcame the fear.
  • Why do some young people like adventurous activities?
    • like feeling thrills
    • make adventurous friends.
    • prefer to get together with those who are not cowards.
    • prove thier strength by doing adventurous activities.
  • Do older people like adventurous activities?
    • some older people like
    • to keep their health
    • but others are physically old.
    • they can't go out to do.
  • How do adventurous activities help people to relieve stress?
    • feel a sense of achievement.
    • challenging activities make them fully satisfied.
    • relieve stress.
  • What skills do people need to take part in adventurous activities?
    • In water activities: how to swim.
    • In outdoor activities: have strength.
  • Why do young people like doing exciting things?
    • relieve stress from schoolwork.
    • catch up with their friends.
  • How does friendship affect people’s overall well-being?
    • make more active.
    • more opp.
    • avoid loneliness.

tiredness / energy

  • Why do people feel tired in today’s world?
    • Using eletronic devices
    • Heavy workload
  • Does studying and learning make people tired today?
    • causes back pain
    • sit on the chair all day
    • can feel tired easily
  • When do people usually feel tired?
    • Heavy workload
    • In korea, people tend to work overtime
    • didn't get sleep well
    • suffer from sleep disorders
  • Do people have fewer holidays now than in the past?
    • in the past: should work 6 days a week
    • for now: work 5 days a week
    • people today have more holidays
  • What are the differences between feeling tired after studying and after exercising?
    • after studying: mentally tired
      • memorized many things
    • after exercising: physically tired
      • used their muscles
  • How can people solve the problem that old people easily get tired?
    • First: get some rest frequently
      • recover their body
    • Second: grow their strength
      • walking is the best way
  • Can technology, such as smartphones and computers, contribute to feeling tired? How?
    • Smartphones: people always watch them bending their necks
      • increase muscle tension
      • Even if they should sleep at night, they watch it overnight
      • causes tiredness and sleep disorders

success

  • How do people assess the success of others?
    • wealth, popularity
  • Is money the only measure of success in your country?
    • success can be measured by different things, such as popularity, wealth, or occupation
  • Is money a true measure of success?
    • consider money as a true measure of success, occupation or popularity
  • In your opinion, is success more about luck or hard work?
    • success is more about hard work.
    • as they say, 'practice makes perfect', so hard work is essential,
    • without luck or the right opportunities, hardworking people might fail to succeed.
  • How important is education in achieving success?
    • plays an important role in achieving success
    • provides numerous opportunities for success
    • trying to get money from investors, having a good education can really help
  • Is being successful and having a lot of money the same thing?
    • some people consider success as achieving a good occupation or personal satisfaction
    • others see it as having a lot of money.
  • How do people achieve success?
  • What are some of the factors which influence success at school?
  • What influences students’ grades at school?
  • What skills do you think are most important for someone who wants to succeed in business?
  • How has technology changed the way people do business in recent years?
  • In your opinion, is it important for businesses to be eco-friendly?

occasions

  • On what occasions do people have to wait for a long time?
  • What are the daily experiences when people have to wait?
  • Do people usually like to wait for a long time? Why?
  • Why do people dislike waiting?
  • Why do most children have difficulties waiting for a long time?
  • Do children have more patience than adults?
  • Who behaves better while waiting: children or adults?
  • What can people do while waiting in a line?
  • Do people in your country like waiting in a line?

cooking

  • What do we need to prepare when we cook?
  • Why do people cook for others?
  • Do you agree that food is an important part of the festivals in your country?
  • Which dishes are a must at festivals?
  • Lots of people don’t want to cook these days. Why?
  • Is it important to have a meal together with your family?

photo

  • Do people take more photos now than before?
  • Do you think equipment is important to photography?
  • Do you think being a professional photographer is a good job?
  • Is it easier to take pictures now than in the past?

language

  • When do students in your country start to learn foreign languages?
  • What foreign languages do they learn in your country? Why?
  • What qualities should a language teacher have?
  • Do you have any techniques for learning languages?
  • Do you think it is faster for children to learn languages than adults?
  • How does technology influence language learning?
  • Why are so many people learning English?
  • How can we help children learn English?
  • Do you think the way people learn English today is the same as in the past?
  • What are the benefits of the Internet for people’s learning?

exercise

  • What kinds of exercises do people in your country like to do?
  • What characteristics do you think an athlete should have?
  • Do you think academic classes should replace PE classes?
  • How can people know whether a child has a talent for sports?

electronic devices

  • Where can people learn to use electronic devices?
  • Do you think social media platforms like YouTube are good places for people to learn to use electronic devices?
  • Do you think current electronic devices are better than those in the past?

garden

  • Do you think people should keep parks and gardens clean?
  • Are public parks or gardens popular among people who live in cities?
  • Do you like to grow flowers or vegetables?
  • Do you think people of all ages like to go to parks?
  • Do young people like to go to parks?
  • What do old people like to do in parks?
  • What are the benefits of going to the park for young people and old people?
  • Why do some people like planting flowers?

art

  • What are the differences between painting and drawing?
  • Why do some people keep a painting for a long time?
  • Why do some paintings have more value than others?
  • How does building style affect people’s lives?
  • Does the design of a building influence people’s mood?
  • What kinds of art do people like in your country?
  • What kind of art is the most valuable in terms of money? Monetary value
  • Is art important?

party

  • Why do people like parties?
  • Why do some people dislike going to parties?
  • What do adults do at parties?
  • Do you think music and dancing are a must at a party?
  • How do people celebrate their personal events?
  • What do children do at birthday parties?
  • Why do people organise family parties in your country?

science

  • Is it important to study Science at school?
  • Why don’t some children like learning Science at school?
  • Which science subject is the most important for children to learn?
  • Should people continue to study Science after finishing school?
  • How do people get to know about scientific news?
  • Should scientists explain the research process to the public?
  • Can science change our society?
  • Which is more important: science or social studies?

family

  • What rules do most families have?
  • What rules should children follow at home in your country?
  • On what occasions can children be forgiven if they don’t follow some rules?
  • What rules do people have in schools and workplaces in your country?
  • What rules should people follow when using public transport?
  • Why don’t some people follow the rules?

relationship

  • Are there any differences in the relationship between you and your friends and between you and other people?
  • Do people feel lonely in crowded cities?

change

  • Do people like new things or changes in life?
  • Why do some people dislike change?
  • Why do some people quit and change jobs?
  • How can people adapt to changes in life?

tiredness

  • Does learning make people tired today?
  • When do people usually feel tired?
  • What do you think about striving for learning and striving for sports?

diversity

  • Why do some people travel a lot?
  • Do people have different personalities in different regions of your country?
  • What causes the differences between different regions of your country?
  • Do children like to try new things, or do people of your parents’ age also like to try new things?

service

  • What do people do when they get bad service?
  • How do people respond to bad service?
  • Why do some people choose to be silent when they receive bad service?
  • What kind of service should customers expect from a company?
  • What is good service?
  • What is bad service?
  • Who should be responsible for bad service?
  • What should companies do if their product is faulty?
  • When does good service play an important role?
  • Can robots provide better customer service than people?
  • Are customers' expectations too high?
  • Why don't some companies provide good service?
  • How can a company maintain the quality of their service?
  • How can companies improve customer service?
  • Is service better in large or small shops?

sports

  • What are the benefits of playing sports regularly?
  • What are the benefits of sports for children?
  • Do children need to exercise?
  • Some people prefer to exercise alone, while others prefer to exercise with a group. Which one do you think is better, and why?
  • What do you think are the most popular sports in your country, and why?
  • How important do you think it is for children to participate in sports?
  • Many people have busy schedules and find it difficult to make time for exercise. What advice would you give them to help them stay fit?
  • What do you think are the potential risks associated with playing sports, and how can they be avoided?

business

  • What kinds of family businesses are common in your country?
  • What do you think of family businesses?
  • Is it good to work with family members?
  • Why do people want to do family business?
  • What factors lead to success?
  • What do people need to sacrifice for success?
  • Why do some people achieve success faster than others?
  • Are successful people often lonely?

opinion

  • When do you think children start to have their own ideas/opinions?
  • Are children’s opinions influenced by their parents?
  • Do children have similar ideas to their parents?
  • What encourages people to come up with new ideas/inventions?
  • How do inventors or philosophers come up with new ideas?
  • Should people spend more time reading about the ideas of famous thinkers of the past?
  • Whose ideas and opinions are widely respected in your country?

place

  • Why do some people like to visit historical sites?
  • What are the differences between modern towns and modern cities?

advice

  • Do you think parents should give their children advice?
  • Should teachers give students advice?
  • Do you think it is necessary to listen to friends’ and parents’advice?
  • How to give young people and old people advice?
  • Why do many young people refuse the advice of older people?
  • Why is it easier for some people to accept advice?
  • What people are most suitable to give advice to others?
  • Is it ok if professional advice costs a lot?
  • What problems can people have if they ask many people for advice?

proud

  • What are the things that make people feel proud of?
    • earning a lot of money makes people feel proud
      • gives them a sense of achivement
    • after extercising, people feel proud of themselves
      • can experience a sense of accomplishment
  • Do people often feel proud when they complete a difficult task?
    • they can get a sense of achivement.
    • might get a big reward when they finish a difficult task.
  • What do you think of online advertising?
  • Are there any good online adverts?
  • Why do people watch useless advertising?

money

  • Are people good at saving money?
  • Do you think children should have pocket money?
  • What do young people save money for?
  • Do you think it is hard for people to save money nowadays?

water sports

  • What types of water sports are popular in your country? Why?
  • What do you think are the benefits of participating in water sports?
  • What are the disadvantages of water transport?
  • Do you think water sports are safe? Why or why not?
  • Why do people want to try an extreme water sport like skydiving or bungee jumping into water? Why do some people dislike such activities?
  • Are there many people in your country who often go diving?
  • How do you think climate change will affect water sports in the future?
  • Do you think schools should teach children how to swim?

Parenting and Childrearing

  • Do you think there are too many rules for children to follow?
  • Do you think children should have many toys?
  • Do you think it's good for parents to help their children choose friends?
  • How can parents help children make decisions?
  • At what age should children start to make decisions?
  • What are some of the biggest challenges that parents face when raising children?
  • Do you think that parents today face different challenges than parents did in the past?
  • What do you think are some of the most important things that parents can do to help their children grow up to be responsible and successful adults?
  • What are some of the most effective discipline techniques for children?

festivals

  • Is it important to celebrate traditional festivals?
  • Will these traditions be lost in the future?
  • Do you think that festivals and traditions have an important role in society?
  • What is a traditional food or drink that people typically enjoy during festivals in your country?
  • How have festivals and traditions changed over the years in your country?
  • Do you think they will continue to change in the future?
  • Do you think that festivals and traditions are becoming less important in modern society?
  • Are there any traditional festivals that are not celebrated anymore in your country?
  • Are traditional festivals disappearing?
  • Should children learn about traditional festivals at school?

independent living

  • Should young people live on their own?
  • What kinds of people tend to live alone?
  • Besides cooking, are there any other skills that people need to learn if they live on their own?
  • Is it good for young people to live by themselves?

Information Dissemination and Evaluation

  • What kinds of professions are related to giving information to others?
  • What is the difference between providing information by phone and by email?
  • How can people check whether a piece of information is correct or not?
  • Do people trust the information online?
  • How do you verify the accuracy of information that you come across online?
  • Do you think that people are more likely to believe true or false information these days?
  • What information can people get from television?
  • What are some of the consequences of misinformation in society?
  • Are there any news sources that people trust more than others?
  • Do you think that schools should teach critical thinking skills to help students better evaluate information?

communication skills

  • Which one is better, being a good speaker or a listener?
  • What qualities does a person need to have to be a good speaker?
  • What benefits does the Internet have for communication?
  • Does technology have a negative impact on communication among people?

fashion and clothing

  • Do you think that fashion trends are important? Why or why not?
  • Do you think you can tell about someone’s personality based on their fashion choices?
  • When do people wear formal clothes?
  • Should people wear formal clothes at work?
  • Do you think that people dressed more formally nowadays compared to the past?
  • When do people in your country wear traditional clothes?
  • Why do some people like traditional clothes?
  • What is the difference between the clothes of the elderly and the young people in your country?

adventure

  • Who likes to read adventure books?
  • Do you think children are more interested in adventure stories?
  • Do people prefer adventure novels or films?
  • What kinds of people dislike adventures?
  • Why are some children addicted to adventure games?
  • Why do some people prefer to read adventure books rather than take an adventure?
  • Do you think adventures are important in life?
  • What do you think are the benefits of going on an adventure?
  • Is it better to go on an adventure alone or with a group? Why?
  • Are there any risks associated with going on an adventure?
  • Do you think that people should take more risks in their lives and go on adventurous trips?
  • What advice would you give to a person who is planning an adventure for the first time?
  • Does experiencing adventures broaden people's horizons?

Memory and Recall

  • Why do some people have better memories than others?
  • When is it important to remember information well?
  • What kinds of things do people prefer to remember?
  • What kinds of things do people have to remember?
  • What kinds of things do people usually forget?
  • What kinds of people are forgetful?
  • What are some techniques people can use to help remember important information?
  • Do you think people can trust their memories?
  • How do you think technology has affected our ability to remember things?
  • What childhood memories do people usually have?
  • Can technology help people remember past events?

Inventions and Technology

  • What qualities do inventors have?
  • What about scientists?
  • Do all inventions bring benefits to our world?
  • Do you think people who haven't been educated in school can invent things?
  • Do you believe only scientists can invent new things?
  • What inventions do you think should be improved?
  • What have been some of the most important inventions in the past 100 years?
  • What inventions will we have in 20 years?
  • What invention would you like to see in the future?
  • What invention do you wish had never been invented and why?
  • What invention do you think has had the greatest impact on people’s lives in your country?
  • Do you think technology has improved our quality of life?
  • How do you think technology and inventions will change the way we live in the future?

Direction Sense and Navigation

  • There are some people who never get lost. Why?
  • Why do some people have a good sense of direction?
  • Do you think it’s easy or difficult to find your way in a new city? Why?
  • Why do some people dislike asking others for directions?
  • How do you think technology has changed the way we navigate and find directions?
  • Should children be taught to read paper maps at school?
  • Are paper maps still necessary?

Travel Planning and Experience

  • Do most people like planned travelling?
  • What factors affect how people feel about travel?
  • What should be done before a trip?
  • What preparations should be made before going on holiday?
  • Do younger and older people choose different places to go to on holiday?
  • What problems can people have on holiday?
  • Why do some people dislike travelling abroad?
  • What are the benefits and drawbacks of travelling alone and with friends?
  • What kinds of places are popular to visit in your country?
  • Do you think it’s important to learn about the culture of the places you visit?
  • How do you think technology has changed the way people travel?
  • Why do you think so many younger people travel these days?

Job and Career

  • What kinds of jobs are popular in your country?
  • Do people in your country do the same job throughout their whole life?
  • What kinds of people do low-salary jobs?
  • Is it important doe secondary schools to offer career advice to students?
  • Should universities arrange classes for students to teach them how to find jobs?
  • If they do, what skills should students learn in such classes?
  • When do you think is the right time for young people to start making plans for their future careers?
  • What professions are popular with young people in your country now?
  • What kind of job do you think will be popular in the future?
  • What kinds of jobs are well-paid in your country?
  • What do you think are the benefits of having a steady job?
  • Do you think it’s better to work for a big company or a small company? Why?
  • What do you think are the most important skills for getting a good job?
  • Do you think it’s important to have a job that you love or a job that pays well? Why?
  • Do you think it’s better to work in the private sector or the public sector? Why?

Crowded Places and Public

  • What do you think of people who stand in a queue for more than an hour?
  • Are most people comfortable being in crowded places?
  • What are some crowded places in your city?
  • Do you think crowded places are becoming more common in modern society?
  • What are some potential dangers of being in crowded places?
  • What measures do you think can be taken to make crowded places safer?
  • Do you think cities should limit the number of people who can visit popular tourist attractions or shopping areas to avoid overcrowding?

Money and Financial Management

  • What is the role of money in people’s lives?
  • Do you think it is more important to save or to spend money? Why?
  • Why is it hard for some people to save money?
  • What is the best way to save money?
  • Do you think money can buy happiness?
  • How do people waste their money?
  • How do people’s attitudes towards money have changed over the years?
  • Should children have pocket money?

Decision Making and Influence

  • How do people usually make important decisions?
  • What important decisions do young people have to make after school?
  • Do you think it’s important to listen to other people’s opinions before making a decision?
  • Do you think it’s better to make decisions based on logic or emotions? Why?
  • What factors should people consider when making a big purchase, such as buying a car or a flat?
  • Why do some people regret their decisions?
  • What are some of the most important things to consider when making a decision that will affect other people?
  • Do ads influence our decisions while shopping?
  • Is the influence of advertising good or bad?
  • How does advertising influence children?

Housing and Urban Living

  • What difficulties do people have living in the city?
  • What are the most important features of an ideal house for most people?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in the city center rather than living in the suburbs?
  • How will technology change the way we find and rent/buy accommodation in the future?
  • What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of living in a shared apartment?
  • How does the housing market affect young people who are looking for accommodation?
  • Do you think it’s important to decorate your living space?

Volunteering and Altruistic Behavior

  • What can children do to help their parents?
  • What are the benefits of children helping their parents?
  • Should children be taught to help others?
  • How can high school students help each other?
  • Should students do community work?
  • Should people take part in volunteering more often these days?
  • Why are some people willing to help others?
  • What motivates people to volunteer and help others in their community?
  • What are the benefits of volunteering for both the individual and the community?
  • Why do people volunteer?
  • How can volunteering and helping others be integrated into schools and workplaces?
  • In what ways can volunteering and helping others be encouraged in society?
  • Is it the responsibility of individuals or governments to provide support to those in need?
  • What skills can be gained from volunteering and helping others?
  • How can they be useful in personal and professional development?
  • Is it important to teach children to donate money to those in need?

Reading and Learning

  • What kinds of books do children like to read?
  • What can children learn from books?
  • What’s the difference between e-books or paper books?
  • Do people prefer e-books or paper books in your country?
  • Do you think parents should read stories to their children?
  • What can children learn from books?
  • How can reading help children?
  • Do you think it’s important for children to read books?
  • Do you think reading books is better than watching films?
  • What benefits do you think reading has for people?
  • Do you think reading books can help people learn more about different cultures?
  • Should people read books that are difficult or challenging to understand?

Popularity and Fame

  • Why do some students want to become popular?
  • What kinds of people are more popular at school?
  • What kinds of people are more popular at work?
  • Are smart people popular at work?
  • Do you think a good teacher should become popular?
  • What factors do you think contribute to a person’s popularity?
  • Is it possible to become popular overnight?
  • How has social media influenced the concept of fame in recent years?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of being popular in school?

Transportation and Driving

  • Which jobs require people to be good at driving?
  • What qualities should a driver have?
  • What benefits does public transport bring to society?
  • Are there any drawbacks of public transport?
  • Do you think the government should make it a rule for people to use public transport more?
  • Do you think that the government should invest more in public transport?
  • Is it too late for people to get driving licenses at 18 years old?
  • What is the most common mode of transport in your city?
  • How do traffic jams affect people?
  • What do you think are the benefits and drawbacks of driving a car instead of using public transport?
  • Will people be driving electric cars in the future?
  • Are there any traffic laws in your country that you think should be changed or improved?

Shopping and Consumer Culture

  • Is location the key factor that attracts customers?
  • What kinds of shops are popular in your country?
  • Why do young people enjoy going to boutiques?
  • Why do people like shopping more now than in the past?
  • Do you think shopping is good for a country's economy?
  • Are shopping centers and malls still popular these days?
  • What is your opinion about online shopping? Do you think it is better than going to the offline store?
  • Can shopping be addictive?
  • How have shopping habits changed in recent years?
  • Do you think shopping can be a waste of time and money?

Games and Play

  • Why do people like to play different games?
    • various genres.
    • by playing these kinds of games, people can relieve their stress.
  • Is winning the most important goal in playing games?
    • some people: important: want to achieve or win prizes.
    • others: just for fun and to relieve stress.
  • Is it good for children to want to win?
    • gives them a sense of achievement.
    • can learn about healthy competition.
  • Is it important to develop a sense of competition in children?
    • encourages children to make an effort in their education and learning skills.
    • teaches them the value of perseverance and hard work.
  • Are games important for children's development?
    • computerg games
      • negative effects on children
      • they can easily become addicted to playing them
    • physical games like...
      • these can help children stay healthy
  • What games do children play these days?
    • League of Legends: many playble characters
      • can play using a different character every single game
    • famous players in Korea
      • can follow them as role models
  • Which are better: indoor or outdoor games?
    • encourage people to stay healthy & to socialize with others
    • help improve both physical and mental health.
  • How can children benefit from playing team games?
    • mental benefits: can relieve stress through team games & learn about cooperation
    • physical benefits: can improve their bodies.
  • Which are better: team games or individual ones?
    • learn about cooperation & teamwork by playing team games.
    • they can improve their social skills.
  • What is the most popular game in your country?
    • offline games: baseball
      • enjoy playing and watching baseball
    • online games: League of Legends
      • many famous players in Korea
  • Do you think games can help people relax and relieve stress?
    • Winning a game: a sense of achievement
    • helps to relieve stress
    • can feel rewarded
  • Why can video games be addictive?
    • often violent and exciting
    • can make people addicted to video games
  • Is playing games a waste of time?
    • relieve stress.
    • outdoor games can help people maintain their health.

Education and Talent Development

  • Do you think children are born smart or learn to be smart?
    • learn to be smart
    • When people make an effort every day it helps them become smart and always leads to success.
  • How can we help children realize their talents?
    • by involving them in extracurricular activities based on their hobbies.
    • it's important to provide them with opportunities to experience different areas.
  • What is the difference between a parent's and a teacher's role in a child's education?
    • a parent's role: moral values, relationships between people and repecting the elderly.
    • a teacher's role: academic subjects, math and science.
  • Does the government provide enough support for education?
    • graduating from high school is mandatory in Korea
    • many forms of financial support: tuition
      • many students use this support to reduce their university fees.

movie

  • Why do some people read movie reviews?
    • know how good or funny the movie is
    • by checking reviews, they can better decide
  • Do most people believe movie reviews?
    • trust movie reviews
    • can only write about a movie after they have watched it
    • to be real and truthful
  • What are types of films are popular in your country?
    • most Koreans are really interested in sci-fi movies
    • they can relieve stress by watching these kinds of movies.
  • Are historical films popular in your country? Why?
    • not popular in Korea
    • boring and have long screen times
    • perfer to enjoy other types of movies
  • Do you think films with famous actors or actresses would be more popular than films with actors who are not famous?
    • check who the main characters are
    • If the actors are famous, they are more likely to go see them on screen.

참조

IELTS Speaking 기출 Part2

· 약 13분

activity

Describe an activity you did with another person

- What the activity was: Riding a bike
- Where and where you did it: from 보라매 to 여의도, bike path
- Who you did it with: wife
- and why you chose that person
- like her: a lot in common
- exercise regularly
- have the same taste in food
- felt compfotable: know each other in and out
Describe an activity that made you feel tired

- What the activity was: cleaning my home
- When and where it was: about this time, last month, home
- Why you took part in it:
- took in charge of cleaning bathroom
- better than my wife
- And explain why it made you feel tired
- clean the floor: brush every tiles
- get wet: although carefully, ended up getting wet

person

Describe a successful person you know

- Who they are: 손흥민, soccer player for Tottenham, a team that belongs to the English Premier League.
- What they do: stricker, one of the best players in his team.
- How you learnt about them: through media: TV and Internet news, these days advertisements.
- And explain why you think they are successful
- famous: a World cup player, a member of the national team.
- rich: according to the news, his salary is over 100 million dollars.

occasion

Describe an occasion when you waited for a long time for a nice thing

- When it happened: last year
- What the nice thing was: rode a wooden rollercoster
- Why you waited for a long time:
- And explain how you felt about the experience
- exhousted: waited for 2 hours in line.
- excited: the ride was thrilling.

cooking

Describe someone you know who loves cooking.

- Who this person is: my mom
- How you know her: actually, I don't need to explain about her, she is my mom.
- What kinds of food she cooks: she can cook Korean, Chinese, and Western dishes. all the certificates for those.
- And explain why you think she loves cooking.
- loves cook for the family: finished eating the food, told her it was delicious, always happy.
- likes to cook because she is really good at it: has certificates for cooking, really enjoys cooking itself.

photo

Describe a photo that makes you happy.

- What the photo is like: a photo taken in Thailand
- When and where you took this photo: about this time last year, with my wife to celebrate our anniversary
- How often you watch it: every single day, my smartphone’s background image
- And explain why this photo makes you happy.
- I can recall that time
- swimming on the beach and eating various local foods.
- I remember how much I love traveling.
- It makes me excited to think about saving money for future trips.

language

Describe a foreigner who can speak your language well.

- who she is: vicky
- how you know her: met her on the chat
- why she can speak your language well: learn Korean every single day.
- and explain how you feel about this person.
- impressed
- her skills are improving rapidly.
- pronunciation is very accurate.
- encouraged
- motivates me to learn English.
- have started to memorize English words.

athlete

Describe a famous athlete you know.

- who he is: 손흥민
- how you knew him: saw him on television, a member of national team
- what he has achieved: won the asian games
- and explain why he is famous.:
- a member of English Premier League called Tottenham
- has lots of experiences.
- has a good sense of humor.

computer

Describe a time when you solve a problem by using a computer.

- what the problem was: one of my servers was worn out
- how you solved the problem: I searched for error messages online
- how long it took to solve this problem: it took 2 hours
- and explain how you felt about this experience.
- flustered
- exhousted
- sense of achievement

park

Describe a park or garden in your city.

- when you go there
- what it is like
- what you do there
- and explain how you feel about it.

painting

Describe a painting

- when you first saw this painting
- what the painting is about
- who the painter is
- and explain how you feel about this painting

party

Describe a party that you enjoyed.

- when you went to the party
- where the party was
- what kind of party it was
- and explain why you enjoyed this party

science

Describe a science subject (Biology, Robotics) that you are interested in

- which subject it is
- where you learnt it
- how you learnt it
- and explain why you are interested in it

rule

Describe a rule that is important in your school or at work.

- what the rule is about
- what happens when people break this rule
- why you think it is an important rule
- and explain how you feel about the rule

unknown person

Describe someone you don’t know, but would like to know more about

- who this person is
- what they are like
- what interesting things they have done
- and say why you want to know more about him/her

time

Describe a period of time that changed your life

- when it was
- who you were with
- what happened
- and explain why it changed your life

tired activity

Describe an activity that made you feel tired

- when it happened
- where it took place
- what the activity was
- and explain why it made you feel tired

country

Describe a place in your country that you’re interested in

- where it is
- how you knew it
- why you are interested in it

bad service

Describe an occasion when you received bad service

- who provided this service
- what service it was
- when you received this service
- and explain how you felt about it.

sports program

Describe a sports program you like to watch

- what the sport is
- when and where it is held
- who you watch it with
- and say why you enjoy watching it

business person

Describe a successful business person you know.

- who this person is
- how you knew them
- what business he/she does
- And explain why he/she is successful

interesting person

Describe a person who always has interesting ideas or opinions

- who this person is
- what this person does
- how you knew him/her
- And explain why you think his/her ideas/opinions are interesting

beautiful city

Describe a beautiful city

- where the city is
- how you knew the city
- what buildings the city has
- and explain what it is famous for

advice

Describe a piece of good advice that you gave to someone

- who you gave the advice to
- what the advice was
- why you gave the advice
- and explain how he/she followed your advice

proud task

Describe a difficult task that you completed at work/study that you felt proud of

- what the task was
- how you completed it
- why the task was difficult
- why you were proud of the completion of the task

advertisements

Describe a good advertisement that you think is useful

- Where you can see it
- What it shows
- Why you think it is useful
- And explain how you feel about it

time when saved money

Describe a time when you saved money to buy an expensive gift for others.

- what the gift is
- who you would give the gift to
- how long it will take to save the money
- and explain how you felt about it.

water sport

Describe a water sport you want to learn in the future.

- what it is
- what you need to do this sport
- why you want to learn this sport
- and explain whether it is difficult or easy to learn this sport.

time with a child

Describe an occasion when you spent time with a young child.

- who this child is
- where you spent time with this child
- what you did together
- and how you felt about it.

traditional festival

Describe a traditional festival in your country

- what the festival is
- when and where it is held
- what happens at the festival
- and say if you enjoy the festival

new comer

Describe a person who moved into new accommodation/who moved to your community.

- Who this person is
- When this person moved to a new place/your community
- What this person did
- And explain how you feel about this person

incorrect information

Describe an occasion when you got incorrect information.

- why you need this information
- how you got it
- how you found it was incorrect
- and how you felt about this experience.

speach

Describe a speech you gave

- Who you gave the speech to
- What the speech was about
- Why you gave the speech
- And explain how you felt about the speech

clothing

Describe a piece of clothing you often wear.

- what it is
- how often you wear it
- what it is like
- and explain why you enjoy wearing it.

adventure

Describe an adventure you would like to go on

- where you would go
- who you would like to go with
- when you want to do this
- and explain why you want to go on this adventure.

happy memory

Describe a happy memory in your childhood.

- What it was about
- Who you were with
- What you did
- And explain how you felt about it.

useful invention

Describe an invention that is useful in your daily life.

- what the invention was
- what it can do
- how popular it is
- and explain whether it is difficult or easy to use.

lost and needed help

Describe an occasion when you got lost and needed help

- when and where it was
- what happened
- how you felt
- and say how you found your way

to visit place

Describe a place you would like to visit in the future

- where it is
- what it’s like
- how you would travel there
- and say why you want to visit that place

job

Describe a job you are interested in.

- what it is
- when you heard about this job for the first time
- what qualities it requires
- and explain why you are interested in this job.

crowded place

Describe a crowded place you went to

- where the place was
- when you went there
- how many people were there
- and say how you felt about the experience

expensive gift

Describe an expensive gift you would like to buy

- what the gift is
- who you would buy it for
- where you would buy it
- and say why you would like to buy it

important decision

Describe an important decision you made

- what the decision was
- where you were
- how you made the decision
- and say why it was difficult to make

ideal house

Describe an ideal house or apartment

- what kind of accommodation it is
- where it is
- what it would look like
- and say why it would be ideal

helpful person

Describe a helpful person

- who the person is
- how you know them
- what they do to help people
- and say when they help you

book

Describe a book you want to read for a second time.

- what the book is about
- how you knew this book
- and explain why you read it more than once.
Describe a popular person.

- who he/she is
- why he/she is popular
- and explain how you feel about him/her.

long car journey

Describe a long car journey you went on.

- where you went
- what you did there
- who you went there with
- and explain why you went on that journey by car.

recent opened shop

Describe a new shop that recently opened in your city/town.

- where the shop is
- what it sells
- what kinds of people usually go to this shop
- and explain how successful you think it will be in the future.

game

Describe a game you enjoyed playing when you were younger

- what it was: starcraft
- where and when you played it: internet cafe with my friends
- how you played it: since it was computer game, I played that using computer.
- and say why you enjoyed playing it:
- could compete with my friends
- won the game: could feel a sence of achievement.
- had three playable characters
- could play different character whenever I wanted.
- liked play Protoss, because it was easy to play.

smart person

Describe a person who solved a problem in a smart way

- who the person is: Vicky, she is my wife.
- what the problem was: frequently forgot passwords
- how the person solved the problem: password managemnet service
- and explain why you think the person did it smartly
- practical solution
- eliminates the need to remember multiple complex passwords, reducing stress.
- time-saving
- allows for quick access to accounts without resetting forgotten passwords.

hate film

Describe a film you didn’t like/were disappointed about.

- What the film was
- Why you didn’t like it
- Why you decided to watch it
- And explain how you felt about it.

참조

IELTS Speaking 기출 Part1

· 약 15분

fishing

  • Is fishing popular in your country?
    • popular, a lot of lakes and rivers, enjoy fishing there
  • Do you like eating fish?
    • love sushi and sasimi, fish for dinner with
  • Have you ever been to a place where there are lots of fish around you?
    • Han River, a lot of small fish swimming in the river, ❌ catch them, the water seemed dirty
  • Have you seen any movies with lots of fish?
    • Finding nemo, tropical fishes
  • Why do people go fishing?
    • enjoy the experience, eat the fish by cooking it

running

  • Do you like running?
    • like running, used to run around, a lot on my plate.
  • Where do you go running?
    • 보라매 park, 5mins/on foot/보라매 station
  • How often do you go running?
    • Once a week, prefer walking to running, safey exercise for my back and knees
    • Once a week, used to run once a month, want to do exercise more
  • Which places do you think are perfect for running?
    • 보라매 park, a running track, run with others
  • Do you think running is a good way to stay healthy?
    • feel a sence of achievement, relieve my stress

coffee/tea

  • Do you like to drink coffee or tea?
    • drink it every morning, prefer hand-dripped coffee to instant coffee
  • Do most people prefer tea or coffee today?
    • wake up by drinking coffee, enjoy the taste of coffee
  • How often do you drink coffee or tea?
    • drink coffee every single day, make hand-dripped coffee and take it
  • Are coffee and tea popular in your country?
    • the most popular beverage, on every corner, at least twice a day

helping people

  • Do you usually help people around you?
    • always help people around me, it gives me a sense of achievement.
  • How do you help people around you?
    • if my friends are in trouble, try to call them and listen to their concerns.
  • Do your parents teach you how to help others?
    • teach me to help others with a true heart, when I give a hand, it shouldn't be just for show.

robots

  • Are you interested in robots?
    • can help with what humans do, copies human motions.
  • Would you like to have robots in your home?
    • have a robot vaccume cleaner, it is very helpful to clean my home.
  • Are robots important?
    • can do dangerous human activites, can be friends for lonely people.
  • How can robots affect people's lives?
    • by automating activities, can replace human activites like dangerous work, can be helpful to replace house chores.
  • Would you like to drive a robot operated car?
    • don't have to drive and can just enjoy the ride, can watch TV and text with my friends while using the car.

maps

  • Do you often use maps?
    • when I visit a place for the first time, use them to check traffic and estimate arrival time.
  • Are you good at reading maps?
    • can easily find locations on maps, good at navigating and don't often get lost.
  • Do you prefer electronic or paper maps?
    • electronic maps are better, paper maps can be heavy and difficult to handle, only need my smartphone.
  • How often do you maps on your phone?
    • use map applications on my phone once a day, check the estimated time for public transportation.
  • When was the first time when you used a map?
    • can't remember exactly when I first used a map, maybe I was six, went to church so I had to find out which bus I needed to get on.
  • Did you learn to use maps when you were a child?
    • my father taught me how to read maps, they were paper maps, so they were heavy because they had over two hundred pages.

Chatting

  • Do you like chatting with friends?
    • catch up with them, get updates
  • What do you usually chat about with friends?
    • hobbies, life, and exercise routine, share my daily activites, send them pictures
  • Do you prefer to chat with a group of people or with one friend?
    • chatting with just one friend, need to share a secret
  • Do you prefer to communicate face-to-face or via social media?
    • I prefer to meet my friends in person
  • Do you argue with friends?
    • but I haven't argued with my friends recently, try to understand them.
  • Have your discussion topics changed since you were a child?
    • child: comics or computer games
    • now: money and stocks

Riding a bike/bicycles

  • How often do you ride a bicycle?
    • once a month, can ride around the park to enjoy nature
  • Did you have a bike when you were a child?
    • had a bike, father gave it to me, enjoyed riding my bike because I could play with my friends.
  • Did you ride a bike to school?
    • didn't, school was near my home, took 10minutes on foot, didn't need to ride it.
  • Is it difficult to learn to ride a bike?
    • it depends on people, it's easy to learn, I learned to ride a bike in just three days
  • Is it popular to ride a bike in your country?
    • popular, 따릉이, it allows people to easily borrow bikes
  • When was the last time you used your bicycle?
    • 10 years ago, don't have my own bicycle, use the bike rental service.
  • Will you teach your children to ride a bicycle?
    • will teach my children, it's the fastest way to learn, just like my father taught me.

Noise

  • Do you mind noises?
    • mind noises, I'm sensitive, use AirPods to reduce noises.
  • Do any noises bother you?
    • My neighbor's baby is often crying, I go out to find a quieter place.
  • Is there too much noise in our world today?
    • too much noise around us, traffic noise and other sounds, loud music playing.
  • What kind of noise do you come across every day?
    • hear noise every day, It's mostly K-pop songs, they play everywhere I go, I don't want to listen
  • What sounds do you like?
    • I like music, It's calm and enjoyable to listen to.
  • What sounds do you dislike?
    • I dislike loud music,

Films/Cinema

  • Did you usually go to the cinema when you were a child?
  • Do you often go to the cinema with your friends?
  • Do you still like the same kind of movie you liked as a child?
  • What films do you like?
  • How often do you go to the cinema?
  • Did you usually go to the cinema when you were a child?
  • What was the 1st film that you watched?
  • Do you prefer foreign films or films made in your country?

Musical Instruments

  • Do you know how to play a musical instrument?
  • Do you think students should learn to play musical instruments at school?
  • Have you taken any classes on musical instruments in school?

Geography

  • Do you like Geography?
  • Do you think Geography is useful?
  • Have you ever studied Geography at school?
  • Do you want to be a geographer in the future?

Gifts

  • What's the best gift you've ever received?
  • Do you like to give expensive gifts?
  • How often do you buy gifts for other people?
  • Have you ever given handmade gifts to others?
  • Have you ever received a gift you didn't like?
  • Are you good at choosing gifts?

Clothes

  • What clothes do you like to wear?
  • What kind of clothes do you never wear?
  • Do you wear the same clothes on weekdays and weekends?
  • What colour clothes do you like?
  • Do you prefer to wear comfortable and casual clothes or smart clothes?
  • Do you spend a lot of time choosing clothes?

Science

  • Do you like science?
  • What's your favorite science subject?
  • When did you start to learn science?
  • Is there any technology that you think is helpful in daily life?
  • Do you think science classes are important?

Transport

  • What's the most popular means of transport in your hometown?
  • How do you go to work/school?
  • Will you use public transport more in the future?
  • Will you drive more in the future?
  • Are there any traffic problems in your area?

Bags

  • Do you like bags?
  • What kinds of bags do you like?
  • Do you have different bags for different occasions?
  • Do you often change bags?
  • Do you usually carry a bag when you go out?
  • What do you put in your bag?
  • What factors do you consider when you buy a bag?
  • Have you ever lost a bag?
  • What bags do women like to buy?
  • Is a bag an ideal gift?

Fixing things

  • Can you fix things?
  • What kinds of things can you fix?
  • Have you ever asked people to teach you how to fix things?
  • Do you think fixing things is a necessary skill?

Rain

  • Do you like rainy days?
  • What do you do on rainy days?
  • What do you usually do when it starts to rain and you’re outside?
  • Do you think that rain is good?
  • How does rain affect life in your country?
  • Does it rain much in your city?
  • Is there any part in your country where it doesn’t rain much?
  • Have you ever changed your plans because of rain?
  • Would you like to live in a dry or wet place?
  • Do you prefer wet or dry weather?

Ice cream

  • Do you like ice cream?
  • What’s your favourite flavour?
  • Did you eat ice cream when you were a child?
  • Are there any shops selling ice cream near your home?
  • Can you make ice cream by yourself?

Wild animals

  • What’s your favourite wild animal?
  • Are there many wild animals in your country?
  • Have you ever seen wild animals?
  • Have you ever been to a zoo or a safari park?
  • Where can you see wild animals in your area?
  • What animal would you like to see in the wild?
  • Do you like watching animals in the zoo?
  • Are there TV programs about wild animals in your country?

Teachers

  • Would you like to be a teacher?
  • Do you think you could be a teacher?
  • Did you have a favourite teacher?
  • How did this teacher help you?
  • Do you remember your teachers from primary school?
  • Do you have a favorite teacher?
  • Do you want to be a teacher in the future?

Dreams/Ambitions

  • Do you think you are an ambitious person?
    • want to immigrate to the United Arab Emirates someday.
    • good place to live.
  • What was your dream when you were a child?
    • My dream was to be a judge
    • This might sound funny
      • wanted to remove a stone in front of the school
      • sometimes tripped over it
  • What is your main ambition in life now?
    • want to immgrate or get a job abroad, after I get the IELTS score.
    • In fact, want to live in the United Arab Emirates, because it is the safest place in the world.
  • Are you the kind of person who never gives up on your dreams?
    • I think a person who doesn't have their dream is like a dead person.
    • Having a dream makes people...

Concentration

  • Are you a focused person?
  • What do you do to help you concentrate?
  • How do you stay focused?
  • When do you need to be focused?
  • Did you stay focused in class when you were a child?
  • Is it difficult for you to stay focused on something?
  • When is it hard for you to concentrate?
  • What may distract you?
  • Is it easy for you to do 2 things at the same time?

Friends

  • How important are friends to you?
  • Where do you often meet?
  • What do you usually do with your friends?
  • Do you have many friends?
  • Do your friends think you’re a good friend?
  • What kind of friend would you like to meet in the future?
  • What kind of people do you like to have as friends?
  • Do you prefer to spend time alone or with friends?

Days Off

  • Do you usually spend your day off with your parents or friends?
  • What do you often do on your day off?
  • When was your last day off?
  • How often do you have days off?

Languages

  • What languages do you speak?
  • What foreign languages have you studied?
  • Why did you choose to study that language?
  • How did you learn that language?
  • Do you think it's difficult to learn a new language?
  • Will you learn another language in the future?
  • Is it hard to learn a foreign language?

Days of the Week

  • What’s your favourite day of the week?
  • How do you usually spend your time on this day?
  • What’s your typical daily routine?
  • Is there anything that you do every day?
  • What do you usually do at the weekends?
  • Which day is your least favourite day?

Health

  • What do you do to stay healthy?
  • What is your favourite sport?
  • Are there health classes in your school?
  • What is your favorite sport?
  • Do you have any advice on keeping healthy for youngsters?

Work/Studies

  • Do you work or are you a student?
  • Why did you choose this kind of work/to study this subject?
  • Do you like your job?
  • What’s the most interesting part of being a ... (... / student)?
  • What’s the most difficult part of being a ... (... / student)?
  • What do you dislike about your work or studies?
  • What was your dream job when you were a child?
  • Have you changed your mind since then?
  • What kind of work would you like to do in the future?

Accommodation

  • Do you live in a house or an apartment/flat?
  • Can you describe the place where you live?
  • What do you like about living there? What do you like about your flat?
  • Which is your favourite room in your home? Why?
  • Which room does your family spend most time in?
  • What can you see from the windows?
  • Would you change anything about your home? Why/why not?
  • Would you like to move to a different home in the future?
  • What sort of accommodation would you most like to live in?

Home Decoration

  • What kind of decoration do you prefer?
  • How is your home decorated?
  • What is your favorite color when decorating your home?
  • What colour would you never use in your home?
  • What colour would you choose to paint the walls of your room?
  • Do people in your country like redecorating their homes?
  • What is the new decorating trend for this year?

Hometown

  • Tell me about your hometown.
  • What’s your hometown known for?
  • Do you like your hometown?
  • Is it big or small?
  • How long have you been living there?
  • Do you think you’ll continue living there for a long time?
  • How has your town changed in the last 20 years?

Your Country

  • Where is your country located?
    • located in East Asia, on the Korean Peninsula.
  • Which part of your country do most people live in?
    • Seoul, the northwest side, the capital city of Korea.
  • What are the main industries in your country?
    • The semiconductor industry, Samsung, specializing in this field.
  • What are some of the good things about living in your country?
    • The convenience of public transportation
  • What are some of the bad things about living in your country?
    • The transportation restrictions due to North Korea, use planes instead of trains
  • What makes you feel proud of your country?
    • because of its safety, a lot of CCTVs at any place, helps to prevent crimes.
  • Will you stay in your country in the future?
    • won't, want to live in the UAE, the reason why I'm study for the IELTS.

참조

기술사 - 데이터베이스

· 약 19분

DB 개요

데이터/정보/지식/지혜

Data, Informatino, Knowledge, and Wisdom

  • 지혜: 지식과 경험이 축적된 상태/능력
  • 지식: 의사결정에 이용된 정보, 부가가치 창출, 정보의 추상화, 일반화
  • 정보: 관계에 따라 의미가 부여된 데이터, 구조화된 데이터의 집합
  • 데이터: 그 자체로는 의미가 없음, 식별 및 기록이 가능한 단순한 사실

데이터 --관계의 이해--> 정보 --패턴의 이해--> 지식 --원리의 이해--> 지혜

DB/DB system

한 조직의 여러 응용시스템이 공유하기 위해 최소의 중복으로 통합, 저장운영 데이터의 집합 통저운공

  • 통합 데이터: Integrated Data, 최소 중복, 통제된 중복
  • 저장 데이터: Stored Data, 컴퓨터가 접근 가능한 매체에 저장
  • 운영 데이터: Operational data, 조직의 운영에 꼭 필요한 필수적인 데이터
  • 공유 데이터: Shared Data, 여러 응용 프로그램이 공동으로 접근
  • 실시간 접근, 계속적인 변화, 동시 공유, 내용에 의한 참조

기본 구조

  • 외부 단계: Exteranl Level, 외부스키마
  • 개념 단계: Coceptual Level, 개념스키마
  • 내부 단계: Internal Level, 내부스키마
  • 데이터베이스

데이터 독립성

상위 단계의 스키마 정의에 영향을 주지 않으면서 어떤 단계의 스키마를 변경할 수 있는 것

  • 논리적 독립성: 외부 스키마나 응용 프로그램을 변경하지 않으면서 개념 스키마를 변경할 수 있는 성질
  • 물리적 독립성: 개념 스키마를 변경하지 않으면서 내부 스키마를 변경할 수 있는 성질

DBMS

다수의 사용자들이 데이터베이스 내의 데이터를 접근할 수 있도록 해주는 관리 소프트웨어 도구들의 집합

  • 데이터 저장과 개발 및 유지보수 측면에서 중복성의 통제
  • 사용자 간 데이터 공유
  • 권한 관리
  • 다양한 사용자에게 다양한 형태의 인터페이스 제공
  • 데이터 사양에 존재하는 복잡한 관련성 표현
  • 무결성 보장
  • 백업 복구 기능 제공

DB 언어

  • DML: Data Manipulation Language,
    • SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE
  • DDL: Data Definition Language
    • CREATE, ALTER, DROP
  • DCL: Data Control Language
    • GRANT, REVOKE

품질관리 R&R

DB 설계

릴레이션 튜플을 유일하게 식별할 수 있는 속성들의 집합

  • 유일성
  • 최소성
  • 결정자 도출 --유일성 검증--> 슈퍼키선정 --최소성 확인--> 후보키 선정 --엔티티 대표성--> 기본키 결정

데이터 무결성

  • 개체 무결성: 기본키, 모든 개체는 식별자를 정의하고 식별자 값은 NonNull 및 유일해야함
  • 참조 무결성: 외래키, 외래키 값은 기본키로 사용된 릴레이션의 기본키 값이거나 Null
  • 속성 무결성: 컬럼, 지정된 데이터 형식 만족, CHAR, DATE
  • 사용자 정의: 데이터, 사용자가 Buniness Rule(업무규칙)에 따라 정의, CHECK, DEFAULT, 트리거 등

데이터 모델링

개논물

  • 개념적 설계
  • 논리적 설계
  • 스키마 정제
  • 물리적 설계
  • 응용 및 보안 설계

이상현상

릴레이션 데이터의 중복관리로 인해 데이터를 조작할 때 발생하는 사이드이펙트

  • 삽입이상: 릴레이션 내에 하나의 튜플을 삽입하려고 할 때 불필요한 데이터까지 삽입해야하는 현상
  • 삭제이상: 릴레이션 내에 하나의 튜플을 삭제하려고 할 때 유지되어야할 정보까지 삭제되는 연쇄 삭제 현상
  • 갱신이상: 중복된 튜플 중에서 일부 튜플의 속성을 변경시키려고 할 때 정보의 모순성이 발생하는 현상
  • 원인 및 해결방안: 속성들 간의 종속성 분석을 통해 기본적으로 하나의 종속성이 하나의 릴레이션으로 표현되도록 무손실 분해 (Decomposition)

정규화

이상현상을 야기하는 속성 간의 종속성을 제거하기 위해 릴레이션을 작은 여러 릴레이션으로 무손실 분해하는 과정 데이터 일관성, 중복의 최소화, 구조의 안정성을 최대한 확보하기 위한 방법

각 단계가 끝나면 N차 정규형이 된다.

  • 1차 정규화: 도메인 분해
  • 2차 정규화: 부분함수 종속성 제거
  • 3차 정규화: 이행함수 종속성 제거
  • BCNF 정규화: 나중에 추가됨
  • 4차 정규화: 다치종속성 제거
  • 5차 정규화: 조인종속성 제거

연결함정

데이터 모델링 시 개체와 개체 사이에 부여하는 관계성 집합의 의미가 모호하여 원하는 결과를 얻을 수 없거나 향후 업무처리에 영향을 미치게 되는 ER모델의 문제점

  • 부채꼴 함정: Fan Trap, 개체집합(Entity Set) 사이에 관계성 집합(Relation Set)이 정의되어 있기는하지만 관계성 예시가 모호한 경우
  • 균열 함정: Chasm Trap, 개체집합 사이에 관계성 집합이 정의되어 있기는 하지만 일부 개체집합과 개체집합 사이에 관계성이 존재하지 않는 경우

반정규화

정규화된 엔티티 타입, 속성, 관계를 시스템의 성능향상, 개발과 운영의 편의를 위해 데이터 모델을 통합하는 프로세스

DB 운영

트랜잭션

데이터의 정확한 일관성과 무결성을 보장하기 위해 완전히 종료해야하는 데이터베이스 처리의 논리적 작업 단위(Logical Unit of Work)

  • 원자성: Atomicity, 분해가 불가능한 수행 단위로 완전히 수행 또는 수행되지 않음
  • 일관성: Consistency, 트랜잭션이 성공적으로 완료되면 언제나 모순이 없는 상태 유지, 무결성 제약 조건
  • 고립성: Isolation, 트랜잭션 실행 중 중간 연산 결과는 다른 트랜잭션 접근 불가
  • 영속성: Durability, 성공적으로 완료된 트래잭션은 어떤 고장에도 손실 되어서는 안됨

트랜잭션 상태 전이

  • 실행 상태: Active
  • 부분 완료: Partially Committed
  • 완료 상태: Committed
  • 실패 상태: Failed
  • 철회 상태: Aborted

동시성 제어

다중 사용자 환경을 지원하는 데이터베이스 시스템에서 여러 트랜잭션들이 성공적으로 동시에 실행될 수 있도록 지원하는 기능

  • 트랜잭션 스케쥴: 각 트랜잭션을 구성하는 연산들이 시스템에서 시간에 따라 실행되는 순서
  • 직렬가능성: Serializability, 트랜잭션들을 병행처리한 결과가 트랜잭션들을 순차적으로 처리한 결과와 같은 것
  • 갱신분실 문제: Lost update problem
    • 트랜잭션이 동일 데이터를 동시에 갱신할 경우 발생하는 문제
    • 이전 트랜잭션이 데이터를 갱신한 후 트랜잭션이 종료하기 전에 이후 트랜잭션이 갱신 값을 덮어 쓰는 경우 오류 발생
  • 불일치 문제: Inconsistency analysis problem
    • 다중 사용자 트랜잭션들이 동시에 실행될 때 DB가 일관성 없는 모순된 상태로 남는 문제
  • 연쇄복귀 문제: Cascading rollback problem
    • 복수의 트랜잭션이 데이터 공유 시 특정 트랜잭션이 처리를 취소할 경우 다른 트랜잭션이 처리한 부분에 대해 취소 불가능

동시성 제어 기법

  • Locking
    • 트랜잭션이 사용하는 자원에 대해 상호배제(Mutual Exclusive) 기능을 제공하는 기법
    • 상호배제는 특정 트랜잭션이 데이터 항목에 대해 락을 설정하면 잠금을 설정한 트랜잭션이 언락될 때까지 데이터를 독점적으로 사용
  • Time-stamp Ordering
    • 트랜잭션이 시스템에 입력될 때 타임스탬프 부여, 트랝개션의 수행 순서를 제어
    • 타임스탬프 값이 나중인 트랜잭션이 타임스탬프 값이 우선인 트랜잭션에 접근하고 있는 데이터 항목에 대한 접근을 요청하는 경우 롤백 당함
    • 직렬성 보장
    • 데드락 방지
  • 낙관적 기법
    • 트랜잭션이 수행되는 동안 어떠한 검사도 실행하지 않음
    • 트랜잭션 수행 마지막에 갱신 사항들이 직렬가능성을 위반하는 경우가 있는지만 검사하여 이상이 없을 경우 트랜잭션을 확정
  • 낙관적 기법 단계
    • Read Phase: DB를 읽고 개인적인 복사로 갱신, 트랜잭션 갱신은 모두 임시 갱신파일에 기록, 다른 트랜잭션에 의해 접근 불가능
    • Validation Phase: 가해진 변화가 데이터베이스의 무결성과 일관성에 영향을 주지 않을 것이라는 것을 보장하기 위해 검증됨, 이상 있을 경우 트랜잭션 재시작 및 롤백.
    • Write Phase: 변경사항이 영구적으로 DB에 적용됨

Locking 기법

  • Shared Lock: 공유 잠금한 트랜잭션은 데이터 항목에 대해 읽기만 가능, 다른 트랜잭션도 읽기 만 실행 가능
  • Exclusive Lock: 전용 잠금한 트랜잭션은 데이터 항목에 대해 읽기와 쓰기 모두 가능, 다른 트랜잭션은 읽기/쓰기 불가.
  • DB -> Table -> Row -> Column: Locking overhead 증가, 자료 공유성 높음.

2 Phase Locking

모든 트랜잭션이 lock과 unlock 연산을 확장단계와 수축단계로 구분하여 수행

  • 확장단계: 트랜잭션은 lock만 수행할 수 있고, unlock은 수행할 수 없는 단계
  • 수축단계: 트랜잭션은 unlock만 수행할 수 있고, lock은 수행할 수 없는 단계
  • 직렬간으성을 보장할 수 있는 규약으로 가장 많이 사용됨.
  • 교착상태 발생될 수 있으나 예방과 탐지로 해결.

2 Phase Commit

분산 데이터베이스 환경에서 원자성을 보장하기 위해 분산 트랜잭션에 포함하는 메커니즘 Prepare와 Commit 단계를 통해 모든 노드가 커밋하지 않으면 롤백하는 기법

  • Phase 1: 준비 단계
    • 한 지역노드에서 커밋 요구, Global Coordinator가 Commit Point Site 결정
    • Prepare Message 를 전송하고 원격 노드는 Prepare Message Reply
  • Phase 2: 커밋 단계
    • 모든 지역 노드가 커밋 준비되었다는 것을 받은 경우 각 노드에 Commit을 명령함
    • Global Coordinator가다른 지역 노드로부터 에러 보고를 받을 시 롤백 명령

DB 회복

장애 발생시 데이터베이스를 장애 발생 이전 데이터베이스의 내용에 모순이 없는 일관된 상태로 복원시키는 것을

장애 유형

  • 트랜잭션: Transation Failure, 잘못된 입력, 데이터를 찾을 수 없는경우, 오버플로우, 가용자원 초과 요청 등으로 트랜잭션 동작 불가
  • 시스템: System Failure, 교착상태로 트랜잭션이 작업 불가, 하드웨어 오작동으로 휘발성 기어장치의 데이터 손실
  • 미디어: Media Failure, 비휘발성 기억장치(하드디슼) 고장으로 디스크 블록이 붕괴

회복 요건

  • 덤프: 데이터베이스 내용을 일정기간마다 다른 저장소에 저장, 백업정책에 의거하여 다른 디스크 또는 특정 가용 공간에 복사
  • 로그: 데이터베이스 내용이 변경될 때마다 변경 내용을 로그파일에 실시간 저장

회복 기법

  • 지연갱신
    • 트랜잭션이 부분완료 상태에 이르기 전까지 발생한 모든 변경내용을 로그파일에 기록하고, DB에 저장하는 것을 지연시키는 방법
    • 트랜잭션 실패시 로그파일의 내용만을 폐기하면 되므로 Undo필요없음
  • 즉시갱신
    • 변경내용을 DB와 로그파일에 동시에 저장
    • 트랜잭션 수행 도중 실패한 경우 로그파일의 내용을 참조하여 변경 이전 값으로 수정하는 Undo과정 필요
  • 검사점: Check Point
    • 변경내용을 로그파일에 기록하고, 일정시간마다 체크포인트를 발생시켜 그때까지의 변경사항을 디스크에 저장, 로그파일에는 체크포인트를 기록
    • 장애시 체크포인트 이전 처리된 트랜잭션은 회복작업에서 제외하고, 이후 처리된 트랜잭션에 대해서만 Redo 또는 Undo 수행.
    • Check point interval 관리 필요
  • 그림자페이지: Shadow Page Table
    • 트랜잭션 실행 중 현재 페이지 테이블과 그림자 페이지 테이블을 이용
    • 현재 페이지 테이블은 메인메모리, 그림자 페이지 테이블은 하드디스크에 저장
    • 트랜잭션 변경 연산이 수행되면 현재 페이지의 테이블 내용만 변경하고 그림자 페이지 테이블의 내용은 변경하지 않음
    • 트랜잭션이 성공적으로 완료될 경우, 현재 페이지 테이블의 내용을 그림자 페이지 테이블의 내용으로 저장
    • 데이터 단편화 및 그림자 페이지 테이블 복사, 쓰기에 오버헤드 발생

참조

기술사 - 정보보안

· 약 5분

정보보안 개요

정보보안 정의

정보보안 FW

OWASP 10대 취약점

정보보안 위협

정보보호 통제 활동

관리적 보안

CC 인증

  • Common Criteria 인증

ISO 27001

ISMS-P

BCP

  • Business Continuity Planning
  • RTO: Recovery Time Objective
    • 서비스 재개를 위한 목표 복구 시간
    • 금융기관: 2h
  • RPO: Recovery Point Objective
    • 목표 복구 시점 데이터 손실을 시간으로 환산한 개념
    • 금융기관: 0

DRP

  • Disaster Recovery Planning

물리적 보안

생체 인식

  • Biometrics

기술적 보안

기술적 보안 정의

  • 인증, 접근제어, 암호화

암호화 종류

DES

  • Data Encryption Standard
  • Feistal 구조
  • 한국 SEED 128bit -> ARIA 128bit SPN 구조

RSA

  • Rivest Shamir Adleman

키교환 방식

Diffie-Hellman

KDC 방식

  • Key Distribution Center

전자서명

이중서명

2FA

PKI

  • Public Key Infrastructure

SSO

  • Single Sign On
  • SSO --권한관리--> EAM --계정관리--> IAM
    • Enterprise Access Mgmt.
    • Identity & Access Mgmt.

SAML

  • Security Assertion Markup Language

OAuth

AAA

  • Authentication / Authorization / Accounting

OTP

  • One Time Password

접근제어

  • 벨라파둘라
  • Biba Integrity
  • 클락 & 윌슨

Firewall

IDS

  • Instrusion Detection System: 침입탐지시스템

IPS

  • Instrusion Protection System: 침입방지시스템

IPSec

  • Internet Protocol Security Protocol

SSL/TLS

  • Secure socket Layer / Transport Layer Security

VPN

  • Virtual Private Network

NAC

  • Network Access Control

UTM

  • Unified Threat Management

ESM

  • Enterprise Security Management

TMS

  • Threat Management System

융합 보안

무선네트워크 보안

단말보안

DLP

  • Data Loss Prevention

MDM

  • Mobile Device Management

디지털 컨텐츠 보호기술

DOI

  • Digital Object Identifier

INDECS

  • Interoperability of Data in E-Commerce System: 전자상거래의 정보 교환을 위한 지적 재산권 관련 메타데이터 모델

디지털 워터마크

핑거프린트

DRM

  • Digital Right Management

CAS

  • Conditional Access System

Secure OS

Hardening

스마트폰 보안

클라우드컴퓨팅 보안

컴퓨터 포렌식

디지털증거개시제

  • e-Discovery

유비쿼터스 컴퓨팅 보안

개인정보보호

정보보안 관련 법

정보보안 응용

정보보안 목표

기무가

  • 기밀성: Confidentiality, 정보 누출 방지
  • 무결성: Integrity, 정보의 변조 및 파괴를 예방하고 방지
  • 가용성: Availability, 해킹으로 인한 시스템 동작 불능 예방
  • 인증: Authentication, 정당한 사용자 확인
  • 책임 추적성: Accountability, 행위를 부인하는 것을 봉쇄

정보보안 분류

  • 물리적 보안: Physical Security
  • 기술적 보안: Technical Security (논리적 보안, Logical Security)
  • 관리적 보안: Management Security

위험

  • 위험성평가: 위협(Theats) X 자산(Assets) X 취약성 (Vulnerability)
  • 위협: 정보시스템에 손상을 끼칠 수 있는 잠재성을 가진 행동이나 의도
  • 취약성: 정보시스템이 손상을 당할 수 있는 결함이나 약점
  • 자산: 정보시스템과 정보가 가지고 있는 가치