Skip to main content

· 9 min read

Which part of the country do you live in?

Seoul, capital city, crowded, 10 million people, the most safetest city

  • I live in Seoul, which is the capital city of Korea.
  • It's the most crowded city in my country.
  • In fact, about 10 million people live here.

Do you like the place where you live?

very convenient, close to bus stops and a subway station, many stores

  • Yes. That's because it's a very convenient place to live.
  • It's close to bus stops and a subway station.
  • There are also many stores nearby.

Have you ever purchased shoes online?

cheaper, check customer reviews

  • Yes, I have.
  • I like buying shoes on the internet because it's cheaper.
  • Even though I can't try them on, I can choose the right size by checking custermer reviews.

Do you often look in the mirror?

quite often, check myself, when trying on clothes at the shopping mall

  • Yes, I look in the mirror quite often.
  • For instance, every time I wash my hands or brush my teeth, I check myself in the restroom mirror.
  • I also use mirrors when trying on clothes at the shopping mall.

Can you play any musical instruments?

piano, learned to play when I was young, often play the piano to relieve stress

  • Yes, I can play the piano and I l really enjoy it.
  • I learned to play when I was a young child and often used it as a way to relieve stress

Did you ever have music classes at school?

music classes twice a week, learned and practiced many songs with my friends, learned about famous composers

  • Yes, I took music classes twice a week in school.
  • I learned and practiced many songs with my classmates.
  • Plus, we learned about famous composers, like Chopin and Liszt.

When was the last time you gave chocolate to someone as a present?

my wife about two weeks ago, bought it at a cvs, tasted really good

  • The last time I gave chocolate to my wife about two weeks ago.
  • I bought it at a convenience store as a gift for my wife
  • The chocolate tasted really good. so my wife thanked me.

What kind of fruits do you like?

strawberries, sweet and delicious, it has lots of vitamins

  • My favorite fruit is strawberries.
  • I love them because they are sweet and delicious.
  • Additionally, they are convenient to eat since I don't need a knife to peel them.
  • That's why I often have strawberries for dessert.

Do yo prefer funny advertisements or serious ones?

catchy songs, grab my attention with fancy visual and sound effects

  • Personally, I prefer funny advertisements.
  • I like them because they grab my attention with fancy visual and sound effects.
  • They have magnificent scenes with catchy songs that linger in my mind.
  • So I like funny advertisements more.

Which do you like better, writing by hand or typing?

much faster than writing by hand, easier to make changes when I type documents

  • I like typing more than handwriting.
  • This is because using a computer is much faster than writing by hand.
  • Moreover, it's easier to make changes when I type documents on the computer.

Do you prefer taking the subway or the bus?

can avoid traffic jams on the road, cheaper than taking the bus

  • I prefer taking the subway.
  • That's because I can avoid traffic jams on the road.
  • Plus, I often get motion sickness when I take the bus.

Do you use public transportation when you commute to work or go to school?

takes 15 minutes by subway, cheaper and more convenient

  • I use public transportation almost every single day when I go to work.
  • Actually, it only takes 15 minutes by subway to get to the office.
  • Also, taking public transportation is cheaper and more convenient than driving a car.

Are you a student or do you work?

always busy because of my heavy workload

  • I work.
  • I'm a software developer at a software company.
  • Actaully, I'm always busy because of my heavy workload.

In what field would you like to work in the future?

My goal is to start a small software company

  • I'd like to work in the field of software development.
  • To be sepecific, I want to be a smartphone application developer.
  • My goal is to start a small software company someday.

Do you live in an apartment or a house?

7-story building, 4th floor, I've lived there 5 years, kind of old, but comfortable

  • I live in an apartment.
  • It's in a 7-story building, an I live on the 4th floor.
  • In fact, I've lived there for 5 years.
  • The building is kind of old, but I still find my apartment comfortable.

In the future, what kind of house would you like to live in?

two-story house with a yard, I want to have a big dog in the future, my wife's hobby is growing vegetables

  • I'd like to live in a two-story house with a yard.
  • This is because I want to have a big dog in the future.
  • Also, since my wife's hobby is growing vegetables, it would be nice to have a yard.

What do you do after work or class?

usaully exercise after work, like to walk or jog in the park, if it's raining outside, I go to the gym

  • I usually exercise after work.
  • On sunny days, I like to walk or jog in the park near my house.
  • If it's raining outside, I go to the gym instead.

Did you read a lot of books when you were young?

read a lot when I was young, often went to the library to find sci-fi books, big fan of books by Jules Verne

  • Yes, I read a lot when I was young.
  • I often went to the library to find sci-fi books.
  • I was a big fan of books by Jules Verne.
  • So, I read a lot of his books because of that.

Do you like indoor activites?

not a big fan of indoor activites, like te move a lot while enjoying the scenery outside, can't do that when I stay inside

  • No, I'm not a big fan of indoor activities.
  • This is because I like to move a lot while enjoying the scenery outside.
  • However, I can't do that when I stay inside.
  • So, I prefer outdoor activites much more.

Tell me about an activity you do near the water.

put my feet in the water, just sit and enjoy the view

  • I put my feet in the water or build sandcastles at the beach.
  • Also, I just sit and enjoy the view when I want to relax.
  • By looking at the beautiful scenery, I can gain energy to go through the week.
  • Sometimes, I like fishing with my father near the river.

How much time do you spend with your family?

cannot spend much time with my family, On weekdays work, study IELTS, live in Jeju so I have to take a flight to see them

  • I can't spend much time with my family, maybe about once every three months.
  • On weekdays, I have to work and normally in the evening, I have to study IELTS.
  • Plus, my parents live in Jeju Island, so I have to take a flight to see them.
  • This makes it difficult to meet more often.

Do you know your neighbours well?

don't know my neighbours that well, leave home early in the morning, come back at night after work

  • No I don't know my neighbours that well.
  • In fact, I didn't really have a chance to talk to them.
  • This is because I usually leave home early in the morning and come back at night after work.

Have you ever taught someone something?

a new person at work, smart and learned fast, teaching her was easy and fun for me

  • Yes, I've taught a new person at work.
  • I showed her how to do our job.
  • She was smart and learned fast.
  • So, teaching her was easy and fun for me.

Do you still keep in touch with your friends from high school?

lots of high school friends on Instagram, comment and message each other, often see some friends because we live nearby, know each other in and out

  • Yes, I still contact lots of high school friends on Instagram.
  • We comment and message each other.
  • Also, I often see some friends because we live nearby.
  • We know each other in and out, so I feel very comfortable whenever I meet them.

Do you like to invite people over to your house?

feel comportable when I hang out with my friends at home, have everything that I need there, often invite my friends over for dinner

  • Of course, I do.
  • I feel comfortable when I hang out with my friends at my house.
  • This is because I have everything that I need there.
  • Plus, I like to cook, so I often invite my friends over for dinner.

Do you often do housework?

do household chores every day

  • Yes, I do household chores every day.
  • Actually, I take care of most of the housework because my wife is really busy with her job.
  • For instance, I do the dishes and run the washing machine.
  • I think it's good to help so my wife doesn't have to do all the work.

What do you think about robots?

  • I think robots make my life more convenient.
  • That's because I can save time and energy by using them in my daily life.
  • For example, my robot vacuum cleaner cleans my house for me when I'm doing other things such as studying or reading.

What do you do on your computer?

  • I usually shop online when I use my computer.
  • I sometimes watch IELTS lectures as well.
  • Plus, I often play computer games to relieve stress.

· 23 min read


  • 현재: 사실, 반복
  • 현재진행: 동작 강조
  • 과거: 과거에 끝난 것
    • was going to: 하려고 했지만 실제론 하지 않은 일
  • 과거진행: 과거에 뭘 하고 있었는지 강조
  • Used to: 그랬었지~ 해오곤 했었지~ 지금은 안함
  • 현재완료
    • 계속 쭉 해오고 있는 것, for/since
    • 경험 해본적이 있는 것
    • 결과 과거의 행동이 현재와 관련이 있는 것, just/already/yet
  • 미래
    • will: 예측, 결정한 일
    • be going to:
      • 이미 하기로 결정한 미래의 일
      • 현재 상황을 근거로 미래에 일어날 일을 예측할 때
    • 현재진행: 구체적인 계획/약속/예약
    • 현재: 미래 사실로 시간표/일정 상의 일, 주로 사물 주어
    • be about to: 막 ~하려고 하다, 매우 가까운 미래
  • 미래 진행: 미래 특정한 시점에 진행되고 있을 일을 말할 때
  • 미래 완료: 미래의 특정한 시점까지는 어떤 일이 완료되었을 것이라고 말할 때
    • by the time: ~할 때쯤 으로 같이 자주 쓴다.
      • By the time the meeting starts, we won't have prepared the sales report.
      • I'll have learend a lot by the time I complete this course.


  • ever: 지금까지 (한 번이라도)
    • Have you ever baked muffins?
  • never: 해본 적이 전혀 없다.
    • I've never baked muffins.
  • have been: 가 본적이 있다.
    • I've been there
    • I haven't been to Paris.
  • has gone: 가고 없다.
  • 경험의 횟수: once, twice, three times, four times, many times.
    • 이럴 때만 times 를 복수로 씀.
  • The best ~ I've ever ~: 지금까지 내가 ~ 해본 최고의 ~
    • That is the best story I've ever heard.
    • It was the best experience I've ever had.


  • 과거에서 시작해서 지금도 진행 중인 일
  • for, since, how long
    • since: 특정 시점 필요 (since noon, since May, since 5 o'clock)
  • 과거에서 시작해서 진행되어 오다가 방금 전에 끝난일이 지금까지도 영향을 미치고 있을 때
    • Your eyes are red. Have you been crying?
  • 진행으로 못 쓰는 동사들: 동작을 나타내지 않음
    • know, remember, understand, believe, agree
    • want, need, love, like, hate,
    • own, possess, belong, contain
-현재 완료현재 완료 진행
용도1과게에서 시작해서 지금은 끝난 일의 결과 강조과거에서 시작해서 지금까지 진행한 걸 강조
용도2얼마나 많이 또는 몇 번 했는지얼마나 오래 했는지
live, study, work의미 차이 없음의미 차이 없음


  • 시간, 조건 뒤엔 현재가 온다.
  • when, while, before, after, until, if


  • Can: 동사에 강세
  • Can't: Can't 에 강세
  • Can I: 해도 될까요?
  • Can you: 해줄래요?
    • Could: 능력/허락/가능성/추측
    • was/were able to: 특정 상황에 실제로 성공적으로 어떤 일을 해냈다.
      • Our best player didn't play, but we were able to win the game anyway.
    • have/has been able to ~: 특정 시점 이후로 쭉 할 수 있다.
  • Must: 확실한 추측
  • Don't have to: 할 필요가 없다
  • S should V: V 하는 것이 좋겠다.
  • Should I: 하는 것이 좋을까요?
    • I think ... should
    • I don't think ... should
  • Would you: 해주시겠어요?
  • Would you like N: N를 드릴까요?
  • Would you like to V: V 하실래요?
  • I would like N: N을 주세요.
  • I would like to V: V를 하고 싶어요.


  • could belong to S.O.: ~의 것일지도 모른다.
  • could V: ~할지도 모른다
  • couldn't V: ~할리 없다.
  • could have p.p.: ~했을지도 모른다. 할 수도 있었지만 하지 않았다.
  • couldn't have p.p. ~했을 리 없다
    • She finished all of her work in just one day. She couldn't have done it alone.

수동태와 조동사

  • will/can/must + be + p.p.


  • Which: 제한적으로 주어진 몇 가지 중 선택, 어떤~
  • What: 선택 제한이 없는 경우, 무엇~ 몇~
  • Where ~ from?: ~ 는 어디에서 왔나요?
  • How be동사: ~ 은 어떤가요?
  • How 형용사/부사: 얼마나 ~
  • Be 동사 뒤에 오는 건 보어, 목적어 아님.

동명사와 to부정사

  • ~ 는 것, ~ 기
  • 주어는 동명사만
  • Enjoy 는 동명사가 따라옴

동명사만 따라올 수 있는 경우

  • enjoy
  • finish
  • keep
  • mind
  • avoid
  • give up
  • practice
  • suggest

to부정사만 따라올 수 있는 경우

주로 미래: 기대, 소망, 계획, 제안

  • want
  • need
  • hope
  • expect
  • decide
  • plan
  • promise
  • offer
  • choose
  • ask
  • learn
  • refuse

둘 다 오는 경우

  • like
  • love
  • prefer
  • hate
  • start
  • begin
  • continue

의미가 달라지는 경우

  • stop
    • -ing: ~ 하는 것을 멈추다
    • to R: ~ 하려고 하던 걸 멈추다
  • try
    • -ing: 시험삼아 ~ 해보다
    • to R: ~ 하려고 노력하다


  • have/make/let + 사람 + R: ~ 가 ~ 하게 하다.
  • help + 사람 + R: ~ 가 ~ 하는 것을 돕다.


  • ~ 하기 위해 (in order to R), 추가적으로 덧붙힐 때
  • N + to R: ~ 할 N


  • a glass of water
  • music
  • snow
  • sugar
  • air
  • time
  • money
  • news
  • a cup of coffee
  • a loaf of bread


단복수 같은 단어

  • a/some fish
  • a/two sheep
  • a/many deer

항상 복수

두 개의 부분이 모여서 하나의 시물을 이루는 경우

  • pajamas
  • scissors
  • jeans
  • shorts
  • glasses
  • pants
  • headphones

위의 명사의 복수형은 a pair of/two pairs of.


  • a/an: 특별히 정해지지 않은 막연한 사람 또는 사물 하나
  • the: 어떤 사람, 사물을 가리키는지 명확할 때, 특정 사람 또는 사물을 말할 때
    • 어떤 대상에 대해 처음 말할 때는 a/an, 반복할 때는 the
    • I got an e-mail from S.O. The e-mail was about today's meeting.



  • 세상에 하나 밖에 없는것: the world, the sun, the moon, the earth
  • 자연환경: the sky, the sea, the ocean
  • 국가/도시 등에 하나 밖에 없는 것: the army, the police, the government
  • 방송, 매체: the radio, the internet
  • 악기를 연주한다고 할 때 악기 이름 앞에: the guitar, the piano
  • 특정 장소 갈 때
    • go to the movies
    • go to the station
    • go to the bank
    • go to the theater
    • go to the airport
    • go to the post office
  • in the past, in the future
  • the same, the only, the next, the last

사용 안하는 경우

  • 운동: basketball, football, tennis
  • 과목: biology, history, marketing
  • 식사: breakfast, lunch, dinner
  • 집에 있는 경우: go home, at home
  • 출퇴근: go to work, at work

비인칭 주어

  • 시간을 말할 때: It's 5 o`clock.
  • 날짜를 말할 때: It's August 8.
  • 요일을 말할 때: It's Friday.
  • 날씨를 말할 때: It's rainy today.
  • 거리를 말할 때: It's about 10 kilometers.
  • 계절을 말할 때: It's almost spring.


  • I my mine
  • We our ours
  • You your yours
  • He his his
  • She her her
  • They their theirs
  • 소유격 뒤에 명사를 쓰지 않음.
  • 관사 없음.


  • by -self: 혼자, 스스로: I've lived by myself since 2015.
  • Make yourself at home: 편히 쉬세요.


  • 앞서 말한 명사를 다시 말할 때 명사 대신 사용: one, ones
  • a(n)/the + ADJ + one
  • some/the + ADJ + ones
  • Which one(s) ~?: 어느 것(들) ~?


some, any

  • some, any: 사람 또는 사물의 불특정한 수나 양에 대해 말할 때 명사 앞
  • some: 주로 긍정문, yes를 기대하는 권유/요청하는 의문문
  • any: 주로 부정문, 의문문
  • someone/somebody, anyone, something, anything, somewhere, anywhere: 누군가, 무언가, 어딘가란 의미로 정확히 알 수 없는 사람, 사물, 장소에 대해 말할 때
  • someone, something: 주로 긍정문, 권유/요청하는 의문문
  • anyone, anything: 주로 부정문, 의문문


  • ~ 이 없다
  • no + N = not ~ any + N = none
    • I have no questions. = I don't have any questions.
  • none: 대명사라 명사와 함께 사용하지 않음.
  • no one/nobody, nothing, nowhere: 아무 ~ 도 ~ 않다.

many, much

  • many + [C] PL: 많은 ~, 긍정문, 부정문, 의문문
  • much + [U]: 많은 ~, 주로 부정문, 의문문
  • 둘 쓰는거 헷갈리므로 회화에서는 a lot of, lots of 활용하는 게 좋음.
  • 대명사로도 사용 가능
    • She grows many.
    • There isn't much.
    • You already have a lot.

few, little

  • a few + [C] PL
  • a little + [U]
  • few + [C] PL: 거의 없는, 부정문
  • little + [U]: 거의 없는, 부정문
  • A few people came: 몇 명의 사람들이 왔어.
  • Few people came: 거의 안 왔어.
  • I have a little time: 약간의 시간이 있어.
  • I have little time: 시간이 거의 없어.
  • 대명사로도 사용 가능

all, every

  • 모든 ~
  • all + [C] PL / [U]
  • every + [S]
  • all + day, week, month: ~ 종일, ~ 내내
  • every + day, week, month: ~ 마다, 매 ~
  • everyone/everybody, everything, everhwer: 모든 ~ (사람, 사물, 장소)

Both, either, neither

  • both + [C] PL: 둘 다, 두 ~ 모두
  • either + [S]: 둘 중 아무 것이나 하나, 두 ~ 중 아무 것이나 하나
  • neither + [S]: 둘 다 아닌, 두 ~ 모두 아닌

all of, most of, some of, none of

  • all of: 전부
  • most of: 대부분
  • some of: 약간
  • none of: 없음
  • all/most/some/none of: 특정한 대상에 대해 한정적으로 말할 때
    • the/my/these + N
    • it/us/you/them
    • all of the people --- All people
    • most ot these cars --- Most ccars
    • some of the songs --- some songs
    • none of the books --- No books
  • all/most/some/no + N: 일반적인 대상에 대해 말할 때
  • both/either/neither of
    • the/my/these + [C] PL
    • us/you/them


  • 2형식, 보어(형용사) 필요
  • look + ADJ: ~해 보이다
  • smell + ADJ: ~한 냄새가 나다
  • sound + ADJ: ~하게 들리다
  • taste + ADJ: ~한 맛이 나다
  • feel + ADJ: ~하게 느끼다


  • 형용사 앞에서 꾸민다.
  • 동사 앞 뒤에서 꾸민다.
  • ly 패턴이지만 형용사인 것
    • friendly
    • lovely
    • silly
    • ugly
    • lonely
  • 형용사는 사람이나 사물이 어떠한지
  • 부사는 행동이나 일이 어떻게 일어나는지

형용사면서 부사인 것

  • late: It's late / I got home late.
  • long: You have long hair / It doesn't take long.
  • hard: He is a hard worker / The baseball team is practicing hard.
  • fast: Her car is fast / She talks fast.
  • early: I had an early breakfast / Nicole arrived early for her interview.


  • always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never
    • rarely, never 는 부정문
  • 일반 동사 앞, be동사 뒤, 조동사 뒤, have/has 와 p.p. 사이


  • too + ADJ/ADV
  • too + ADJ + for + S.O.: ~ 에게 너무 ~ 한
  • too + ADJ + to R: ~ 하기에는 너무 ~ 한
  • too many + [C] PL: 너무 많은 ~
  • too much + **[U]: 너무 많은 ~
  • 대명사로도 사용 가능: I spent too much last month.


  • ADJ/ADV + enough: 충분히 ~ 한/ ~하게
    • ADJ + enough + for + S.O: ~ 에게 충분히 ~ 한
    • ADJ + enought + to R: ~ 하기에 충분히 ~ 한
  • enough + [C] PL / [U]: 충분한 ~
    • enough + N + for + S.O: ~ 에게 충분한 ~
    • enough + N + to R: ~ 하기에 충분한 ~
  • 대명사로도 사용 가능: I have enough.


  • so many + [C] PL
  • so much + [U]
  • There were so many. / I've learned so much from him.


  • 일반적으로 형용사/부사 뒤에 -er
  • 비교급 + than ~: ~ 보다 더 ~한 / ~ 하게
  • 긴 단어 (3음절 이상): more ADJ/ADV
  • 불규칙
    • good / better
    • bad / worse
    • far / farther


  • 일반적으로 형용사/부사 뒤에 -est
  • 2음절 이상 앞에는 most
  • 명사 없이 최상급만 사용하는 것도 가능: I'm the youngest in my family, That's the cheapest in the store.

as - as

  • as + ADJ/ADV + as: ~ 만큼 ~ 한 / ~ 하게
  • not as + ADJ/ADV + as: ~만큼 ~하지 않은 / ~ 하지 않게
    • 비교 위치 바꿔서 비교급 + Than 도 가능
  • as ~ as possible: 가능한 한 ~ 하게


장소 전치사


  • 직장, 학교 등: at work, at home, at school, at church, at the doctor's (office), at somebogy's (house)
  • 역, 공항: at the station, at the airport
  • 행사, 공연, 경기: at a party, at a concert, at a baseball game


  • 하늘, 대양 등 자연환경: in the world, in the sky, in the ocean
  • 책, 사진 등 인쇄물: in a book, in a picture, in a newspaper
  • (어떤 장소에서) ~하는 중인: in bed, in the hospital,, in prison, in jail
  • in the car, in the taxi


  • 거리: on 2nd Avenue, on Main Street
  • 층: on the first floor, on the 3rd floor
  • 교통수단: on the train, on the bus, on the plane

방향 전치사

  • form
  • to
  • up
  • down
  • into
  • out of
  • over
  • under
  • through
  • across
  • along
  • around
  • on
  • off: ~에서 (떨어져)
  • past: 지나서, 지나친 것은
  • toward: ~쪽으로

시간 전치사


  • 시각: at 10:30, at noon, at 3 o'clock
  • 식사: at breakfast, at lunch, at dinner
  • at night


  • 요일: on Wednesday, on Friday night
  • 평일, 주말: on weekdays, on a weekday, on weekends, on the weekend
  • 날짜, 기념일: on May 21, on my birthday, on our anniversary


  • 월, 계절: in January, in spring, in the summer
  • 세기, 연도: In the 19th century, in 2018
  • 오전, 오후, 저녁: in the morning, in the evening


  • 언제 일어났는지를 말할 때


  • 얼마나 오래 계속되었는지를 말할 때
  • p.p. 와 많이 씀


  • in + 기간: ~ 후에
  • in 10 minutes, in two hours


  • within + 기간: ~ 이내에
  • within 15 minutes, within four days


  • ~ 부터 (계속)
  • 특정 시점부터 어떤 행동이나 상황이 계속 될 때
  • p.p 와 많이 씀


  • (늦어도) ~ 까지
  • 늦어도 정해진 시점까지 어떤 행동이나 상황이 끝난다고 할 때


  • ~ 까지 계속
  • 특정 시점까지 어떤 행동이나 상황이 계속된다고 할 때


  • 전치사 뒤 -ing
  • without saying
  • about working
  • be good at singing
  • by showing

형용사 전치사 패턴

  • about
    • excited about
    • sorry about
    • sure about
  • at
    • angry at
    • mad at
    • good at
    • suprised at
  • for
    • famous for: ~으로 유명한
  • from
    • different from
  • in
    • interested in
  • of
    • afraid of
    • full of
    • proud of
    • short of: ~이 부족한
    • tired of: ~에 질린, sick and tired
  • to
    • married to: ~와 결혼한
    • simillar to: ~와 비슷한
  • with
    • busy with: ~로 바쁜
    • careful with: ~을 주의하는
    • familiar with: ~에 익숙한

동사 전치사 패턴

  • about
    • know about: ~에 대해 알고 있다
    • talk about
    • think about
    • worry about
  • at
    • look at
    • shout at: ~에게 소리치다
    • work at
  • for
    • apply for: ~에 지원하다
    • ask for: ~을 요청하다
    • look for: ~을 찾다, ~을 구하다
    • search for: ~을 찾다
    • wait for: ~을 기다리다
  • on
    • deponed on
    • spend ... on: ~에 (돈, 시간) 을 쓰다
  • to
    • belong to: ~의 것이다, ~에 속하다
    • happen to: ~에게 일어나다
    • listen to
    • talk to: ~에게 말하다
    • write to: ~에게 편지를 쓰다
  • 🚫
    • answer: ~에 답하다
    • call: ~에 전화하다
    • discuss: ~에 대해 논의하다
    • reach: ~에 도착하다, ~에 닿다


  • on
    • get on: ~에 타다
    • hold on: 기다리다
    • try on: ~을 입어보다, ~을 써보다
    • turn on: ~을 켜다
  • out
    • eat out: 외식하다
    • get out of: ~에서 내리다
    • go out: 밖으로 나가다, 외출하다
    • hand out: ~을 나눠주다
    • take out: ~을 꺼내다, ~을 빼다
  • up
    • clean up: ~을 청소하다
    • get up: 일어나다
    • wake up: 깨어나다, ~을 깨우다
    • pick up: (전화기 등)을 들다, ~을 사다
  • 대명사를 목적어로 쓰는 경우는 동사와 on/off/up 등의 사이에 쓴다.
    • take if off
    • clean them up
  • 나머지 경우는 두 패턴으로 사용 가능
    • turn your phone off
    • turn off your phone


  • 문장에 명사를 덧붙힐 때: 전치사
  • 동사를 덧붙힐 떄: to부정사
  • 문장을 덧붙힐 때: 접속사
  • because + 문장, because of + 명사
  • while: ~하는 동안
  • when, while 다음에 미래의 일을 말할 때에는 미래 시제가 아니라 현재 시제
    • What do you want to be when you grow up?
    • It'll be warm while we are on vacation.
  • before, after 뒤에 명사 또는 -ing 가능
    • before midnight.
    • before signing it.
    • after dinner?
  • since: ~ 이후로 지금까지, 이래로
  • until: ~할 때까지 (계속)
    • until 다음에 미래의 일을 이야기할 때는 현재 시제 사용
    • Please don't leave your seat until the bus stops.
  • since, until 뒤에 명사 가능
    • since thier wedding.
    • until next Thursday.


  • if 현재, will/can + R: ~하면 ~할 것이다.
    • 일어날 가능성이 있는 경우
  • if 과거, would/could + R: 만약 ~한다면 ~할 텐데
    • 가능성이 없는 경우
    • 이 경우 were 를 선호함
    • If I were, If she were, If Jerry were



  • 뒤에 동사가 나오면 주격
  • who/which/that


  • I love the food. she made it
    • I love the food which she made.
    • I love the food she made.
  • 뒤에 주어 동사가 나옴
  • 생략 가능 (관계대명사를 주어로 쓰지 않는한)


  • There + be동사: ~이 있다
  • There was/were: ~이 있었다.
  • There have/has been: ~가 있던 적이 있다.

4형식 동사

  • give: ~에게 ~를 주다
  • make: ~에게 ~를 만들어주다
  • send: ~에게 ~를 보내다
  • show: ~에게 ~을 보여주다
  • buy: ~에게 ~을 사주다
  • teach: ~에게 ~을 가르치다
  • give/send/show/teach + 사물 + to + 사람
  • make/buy + 사물 + for + 사람 (정석적인 느낌)


  • Let's + R: (함께) ~ 하자
  • Let's not + R: ~하지 말자


  • How + ADJ
  • What (a/an) + ADJ + N

말 전달

  • said that + 과거
  • told 사람 that + 과거



  • too: 긍정문
    • I do too.
    • I have too.
  • So + V + S: ~도 역시 ~하다.
    • So was I.
    • So did we.
    • So can his brother.


  • either
    • He wasn't either.
    • I haven't either.
  • Neither + V + S: ~도 역시 ~하지 않다.
    • Neither do I.
    • Neither have I.

· One min read

Read replica

Data sources

  • In the schema.prisma file, there can only be one datasource column.
  • In case the data source changes, the migration.lock file must be deleted and the migration process must be run again.


· 3 min read


  • At one point, redux-saga seemed like a cool way to solve redux's tired state management, and then a combination of atomic states seemed like the way to go.
  • That's why I've mostly used recoil, but if you're using query or swr, you don't need such a complicated feature to manage local UI state.
  • recoil seems to be an almost abandoned project with only bug fixes in the meta. discussion#2171
  • Anyway, local UI state just needs to have a pub/sub pattern.
  • The winner of the 2023 state management library seems to be zustand.
    • If you're building an event/messaging based system, it makes sense to use that library with the Flux pattern.
    • If you're building an editor with action-based behavior for all front-end features, or if you're integrating with a chat system that receives function call requests, that's one thing.
  • But for a typical use case, Flux is overkill, except for cascading forms, badges, modals, etc.
  • If I were developing alone, I would want to separate the backend from the frontend, separate the Local, Dev, Stage, and Prod stages, and have a DB, scheduler, queue, API, and SSR stack.


  • Read first; The new wave of React state management을 보자.
  • Atomic, pub/sub, and derived are possible.
  • Using derived state is also rarely necessary unless you need a new state per ID. For data, query already does the job.
  • Atomic design and atomic state management became a necessity.
  • With many developers working asynchronously, it was important to keep track of which files were atoms and what they were for.
  • We have a *.atom.ts file superfix and a *State variable name superfix.


  • Both jotai/atom and Recoil/atom manage atom-based state and propagate state.
  • valtio/proxy implements the same functionality using Proxy and Reflect.
  • Memory management is not the worst, as you can see from the Results for js web frameworks benchmark.
  • zustand, jotai, and valtio are all open source, covered by the pmndrs community, with the same person as a contributor and maintainer.
  • It just works, as his comments in valito/discussion#128 show.
  • valito/issues#141 Having spent a year on Redux and Redux-saga, and two years on Mobx POC and Recoil, this comment really resonated with me.
  • For the time being, I'm going to create several projects and try to use this state management library in all of them.

· 5 min read


What is a programmer?

  • People who like to categorize will call it a coder, developer, or engineer.
  • To strangers, it may seem like a job that pays a lot of money, or that you have to pay on demand,
  • To an employer, you're a mechanic.

What does this job mean to me?

  • At the point where your short-term memory turns into long-term memory, you suddenly have an idea that will solve everything and you grab the keyboard.
  • Throwing myself into a gradient descent and not getting out of my chair until I hear the birds in the morning.
  • You want to code so badly that you can't because you're required to take a liberal arts major.

These days, I tell stories like this.

I build houses on the internet.

  • Front-end? That's interior construction.
  • Backend? That's tooling and gutting.
  • DevOps? That's digging and rebarring.
  • Security? That's keeping unknowns out of the complex.

Programming is about borrowing concepts from the real world to automate what humans do, and I feel like it took me too long to realize this.

I finally understand why so many of my professors used to tell me that the more you know, the more important the basics are. I can see why so many of my professors used to say, "The more time you have, the more important the basics are.


Do programming skills matter in the age of GPT?

My answer is no. There comes a point where the idea of the service is more important than the technology stack. Even people who have never heard of Claude Shannon can create a service, and edge computing has made it possible to deploy that code.

You can't say, "If you go this way, it's going to fall apart at some point. You can't pour gasoline on a burning house and then say, "I told you it would happen.

The social climate is making it more so.

Technology stack

All technology is a tradeoff.

New things always cost money. You have to look at it from the perspective of staff skill and maintenance.

I think, This is not an academy, if you want to write something new, use your personal time and show me a prototype in a week, but there are also people who think, Who am I studying for?

This is why software engineering is so important.

My utopia

So what was it that I didn't like, I don't even know if it was bad construction. You may not know. But not being able to say it's bad construction is overloading my body.

To keep myself from stressing out, I'm going to keep a checklist of ideal features.

  • Do we have a code owner feature? Have we created a culture where certain code changes can be reviewed by a per-file owner?
  • What is the average number of comments in a code review?
  • What is the branching strategy?
  • Are unit tests run in the pipeline, and if so, what is the coverage?
  • Are integration tests based on real data executed in the pipeline, and if so, what are the criteria for inclusion in the integration tests?
  • Are E2E tests executed periodically, and if so, who is responsible for managing them?
  • Are cases given enough time to be implemented before going to test driven?
  • Do they perform chaos testing for external factors? Do they recognize the need for disaster recovery?
  • How is open source managed? Is the software versioned on a specific cycle?
  • Do developers manage their own Docker files and deployments, and if not, who does?
  • Is there support from the systems team to configure a private network? If not, is there an environment where a VPC can be configured?
  • What is being done mechanically to maintain the quality of the code, such as lint and static analysis?
  • If there is a failure, is the failure publicized and a failure report created?
  • Does everyone in the team have ownership of the service?
  • What is the SLA for the services you represent? What is the frequency of OOM failures or top 500 failures?
  • Is the SLA a standard for the HR department?
  • Is the direction of the owner visible to all members?
  • Are decisions made based on data? What tools are used to collect logs?
  • Is the logging format standardized with Open Telemetry, and if not, what format is being managed?
  • Collecting web metrics?
  • Is there a foundation for A/B testing to introduce features? If not, how is the HR department involved in planning?
  • Using a design system?
  • Are Storybooks managed in the same repository?

· 2 min read


  • Yarn berry was all the rage.
  • I tried it and found quite a few problems, which is why I ended up choosing pnpm.



  • It stores all the packages and logs all the diffs. This is a major culprit for repository size. Difficult to manage images under 1GB.
  • If typescript goes up, yarn berry version should go up. I want to use the latest syntax in typescript right away, but I can't keep up.
  • I need to update the executable with yarn dlx @yarnpkg/sdks vscode whenever typescript, eslint, and prettier are released.
  • In a project with 20+ front-end developers, this is hard to enforce.
  • It is not possible to test this by making small changes to the source inside the package.


  • Monolithic tools like turbo, environments with postinstall hooks like prism, or preset configurators like create-* reference node_modules directly.
  • Often it won't even run, and you'll have to wait for an open issue in each repo. I'm not writing this to analyze yarn berry's pnp script.
  • In this case, I'd have to give it a nodeLinker and use it the same way I would with yarn 1, with no advantage.


  • The yarn workspaces feature is cool, and yarnpkg/berry is a perfect example of it.
  • But it's only cool if you're only developing node.js libraries. Libraries for the frontend need a bundler, and there's no reference for that.


  • Benchmark scores are managed by Pnpm on a daily basis.
  • Slowness is acceptable with pipeline cache and lock files enabled. It's a one-time slowdown, not a request/response slowdown, so it can be handled by probes anyway.


  • The plugin features in yarn berry are cool, but they add more stress to dependency management.

· 2 min read


  • The programmers who are good at asking questions and quickly determining if the answers are right or wrong will be the ones who survive.
  • Here's a list of repositories that can be used in the field, not just for development tips.


const promptTemplate =
"Write an insightful but concise Git commit message in a complete sentence in present tense for the following diff without prefacing it with anything:";

node chatgpt

const completionParams = {
temperature: 0.7,
top_p: 1,
frequency_penalty: 0,
presence_penalty: 0,


  • You may need to get the exact number of tokens to use the openai API.
  • You should use openai/tiktoken, but it's Python.
  • dqbd/tiktoken already has a node wrapper already out there. 3.5 Turbo support
import { encoding_for_model as encodingForModel } from "@dqbd/tiktoken";

const encoder = encodingForModel("gpt-3.5-turbo");
const tokenLength = encoder.encode("YOUR_CHAT").length;



  • ai-plugin.json in the .well-known path acts as a manifest.json
  • Openapi.yaml in the same path for this endpoint specification
  • There are four types of authentication: none | user_http | service_http | oauth.
  • For simple services, service_http seems to be sufficient, user_http requires the customer to enter an API key, and oauth requires additional permissions such as search:read.
  • It seems to use Vector DB for document similarity comparison, but there is no proper Node.js wrapper for it, so it can be implemented in Redis, but you need the Redisearch module.

· 3 min read


I got a herniated disc from Sumo-deadlift, and I think it would be good for many people to read this before it happens. If I had, I would have had a good posture before the disc between L5-S1 came out.

The overall content is a book review of 백년허리 to protect spinal hygiene.


  • Vertebrae: Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccyx
    • The cervical and lumbar vertebrae are curved forward, with cervical lordosis and lumbar lordosis.
  • Disc damage is the main cause of back pain
  • Discs: Nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, and endplates
    • The posterior annulus fibrosus and endplates are most commonly injured
  • Muscles protect the torn disc.
    • When a disc tears, the muscles tighten to protect it.
    • Low back pain is a sign of a torn disc
  • Lumbar lordosis is a new posture.
  • A healthy disc creates a lumbar lordosis curve, and the lumbar lordosis curve protects the disc.
  • Sciatica is a typical symptom of a herniated disc and is a sign that the disc has herniated.


  • The idea that you can cure a bad back by doing stronger back exercises is like saying that you can cure a broken arm by exercising the arm muscles.
  • The hip muscles and obliques are important.
  • You need to know exactly how much impact your workout will have on your back, and make sure your back can handle the strain.
  • Stretches that bend at the waist are very bad exercises for lumbar lordosis
  • Stiffness in the lower back when a disc injury is healing is a natural part of the process of the wound turning into scarring.
  • It's essential to regain lumbar lordosis through frequent standing and extension movements.
  • It is spinal hygiene to try to never re-tear a disc wound as it heals.
  • Maintaining lumbar lordosis 24 hours a day
  • If you suffer from sciatica when doing lumbar lordosis, you should treat the nerve root inflammation and practice good spinal hygiene.
  • Leaning on a backrest or cushion is an advantage.
  • The basics of spinal hygiene are maximum lumbar lordosis and extension movements.
  • If it hurts to do extension movements, lie on your stomach and do them frequently, for about 5 minutes, with your elbows under your shoulders.
  • Lumbar lordosis should not collapse when standing, sitting, or bending at the waist.
  • Your back is most comfortable when your knees are slightly lower than your pelvis.
  • There is no such thing as a bad back. Your back improves with good posture.
  • Standing lumbar lordosis: place your hands on your waist and hold for 5 seconds while breathing.
  • Standing Chest: Standing, lift your chest and grab your shoulder blades. No duckbills
  • Walking: keep both shoulder blades together, open chest, chin up, graceful chin and proud chest.
  • Sitting: knees should be lower than the pelvis. Sit with an upright chest.
    • The height of the screen should be high enough.
    • When sitting with good spinal alignment, you should be able to see the screen without bending your back and neck too much.
  • The best place for a lumbar strap is between the 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae.
  • Avoid the knees.

Prohibited positions

  • Squatting
  • Sitting long
  • Cross-legged
  • Slouching

· 2 min read


Here's a list of use cases where you can get past the hype and actually use it for something useful.

Extracting regular expressions

Creating regular expressions usually involves a lot of testing. I usually put the desired text in regexr, regex101, and match the negative/positive lookahead from memory, and use negative/positive lookbehind, but often find that negative lookbehind is not supported by different programming versions/languages.

Now I ask ChatGPT. Suppose you want to extract the package name from the package update history below.

Hello GPT.

Can you give me a regex pattern for getting to-be result?

Orignal content

Refined string #1
Refined string #2
...and so on.

It will get it for you.

Writing documentation with code

If you want your code to be documented, put it in and ask it to create a

Can you write a with this code?

It will get it for you.

Create an Object Validation Schema with the interface

Let's create a Joi Schema with a TypeScript interface.

Create a Query DSL with Raw SQL

Pass in a raw query and ask it to create a query DSL and query helper syntax.

Create a DDL with Data

Pass in a query and ask it to generate a table schema query like the interface example above.


awesome is now live.

· 4 min read


I've been using hexo since 2016, and I love it because it has a lot of plugins and themes. Since 2019. As there are many other Static Site Generators, the advantages of hexo are no longer available. The updates of ecosystem libraries such as theme and plugin development have also decreased.

The stack was theme-dependent: ejs -> njk, less -> sass -> stylus. Crucially, it's a nodejs-based core, so even if I uploaded a troubleshooting, it was a waste of resources.

Docusaurus didn't have algolia search when it was 1-2 alpha. There was a shovel to swizzle and use the local search community plugin to attach it, and Korean did not work normally.

In 2023, version 2 was launched, the frontend stack was unified based on React, and it seemed like it was okay to proceed with this work.




  • hexo puts the date inside the front-matter syntax as date: 2023-01-10 09:00:00.
  • docusaurus should use the nested folder structure.
  • It will parse the in the md file and treat it like /2023/01/10/title in the URL.

Site Verification

  • I put it in the configuration without any problems.
"themeConfig": {
"metadata": [
// ?
"name": "google-site-verification",
"content": "g"

hexo new

  • hexo new post "title" This command creates a post, but I needed a compatible command.
  • I used yarn cmd new title to generate what looks like blog/2023/01/10/title.mdx as of today.
  • For URL normalization, you can use import { slugize } from "hexo-util";.
    • slugify also removes Korean characters.


  • The archive of hexo is Order by Created DESC, while docusaurus is ASC sorted.
  • There was an issue to provide this as a plugin option, but it was closed, and do it yourself was the answer.
  • I created one, overwrote the existing component, rearranged it, and linked it.
"presets": [
"blog": {
// path.resolve needed
"blogArchiveComponent": "./src/component/BlogArchiveDescendingPage.tsx"


  • A docusaurus tag is defined as tags: [tag1, tag2] and must satisfy this format.
  • I asked ChatGPT for a regular expression and replaced it with the whole thing.

github action

  • Set up the target repo and branch.
  • Issue a personal access token and insert the two values appropriately.
  • Run yarn build, yarn deploy and it should work fine.
"organizationName": "gracefullight",
"projectName": "",
"deploymentBranch": "main",
"trailingSlash": true
GIT_USER: ${{ secrets.GIT_USER }}
GIT_PASS: ${{ secrets.GIT_PASS }}

dark only

  • Dark only, also deleted the switch.
"themeConfig": {
"colorMode": {
"defaultMode": "dark",
"disableSwitch": true

code block

  • has a different format, so I replaced it with a regular expression.
# hexo
\`\`\`language title

# docusaurus
\`\`\`language title="title"


  • I don't have time to answer questions about the comment feature.
  • I tried to delete it, but I customized it and integrated gitalk.
  • I requested free indexing because algolia is not an open source documentation, but the ticket status didn't change.
  • I used @easyops-cn/docusaurus-search-local, but it doesn't support mobile.
themes: [
/** @type {import("@easyops-cn/docusaurus-search-local").PluginOptions} */
indexDocs: false,
blogRouteBasePath: "/",
hashed: true,
language: ["en", "ko"],
  • After about a week, algolia replied and the indexing was successfully completed.


  • LGTM
  • I think I need to build typesense first, so it won't be easy.
  • If you don't need to view it on mobile, the above plugin should be enough.